formations dispositions screens and maneuvering rules
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Formations, Dispositions, Screens, and Maneuvering Rules

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MOBOARD Formations part 2 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Formations, Dispositions, Screens, and Maneuvering Rules Maneuvering Definitions Large ship - greater than 450 feet Small ship - less than 450 feet Formation - ordered arrangement of two or more ships or units proceeding together

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maneuvering definitions
Maneuvering Definitions
  • Large ship - greater than 450 feet
  • Small ship - less than 450 feet
  • Formation - ordered arrangement of two or more ships or units proceeding together
  • Disposition - ordered arrangement of two or more formations proceeding together
maneuvering definitions3
Maneuvering Definitions
  • Main body - Principal ship of formation
  • Screen - arrangement of ships or ASW helicopters designed to protect the main body
  • Guide - ship on which other ships take station when forming or keep station when formed
  • Station - prescribed position of a ship in relation to the guide
maneuvering definitions4
Maneuvering Definitions
  • OTC - Officer in Tactical Command
  • Standard distance - range between ships in a line depending on size
    • 1000 yards between large ships
    • 500 yards between small ships
    • 1000 yards between large and small ships
line formations
LINE FORMATIONS
  • Historically used as a cruising or battle formation
  • Advantages
    • Ease of station keeping, maneuvering, communications
  • Basic line formations:
    • Column (also column open order)
    • Line abreast (also loose line abreast)
    • Line of bearing (also loose line of bearing)
    • Diamond
  • See figure 6.1
column
Column
  • Formation of ships in single file
  • Usually front ship is guide
  • Advantages:
    • Useful for transiting restricted waters such as swept channel in mine field or narrow strait
  • Disadvantages:
    • Visual comms are difficult - signals must be passed ship to ship
column7
Column
  • Column open order - Assists with visual comms
line abreast
Line Abreast
  • Ships are maneuvered in a line on either side of the guide
  • Advantages:
    • Useful for certain searches
  • Loose line abreast is used to relax station keeping

Guide

Line Abreast to Port

line of bearing
Line of Bearing
  • Ships are maneuvered on either a true or relative direction from the guide (other than on bow, beam or stern)
  • Port or Starboard
  • May form a loose Line of Bearing

Guide

Line of bearing 250R

diamond formation
Diamond Formation
  • Allows greater space between ships without making formation longer

Guide

maneuvering
MANEUVERING
  • The movement of ships required to organize into line formations
  • Normally executed upon signal by OTC
  • Guide may automatically shift in some cases
  • Maneuvering signal pro-words
    • TURN
    • CORPEN
    • FORM
  • See figure 6.3
slide12
TURN
  • All ships turn simultaneously
  • True bearings to other ships remain the same, relative bearings change
  • Visual signal
    • TURN pennant in conjunction with PORT or STBD flag to indicate direction of turn
    • Three numerals is course to steer
    • One or two numerals (0-18) indicated 10’s of degrees to turn
    • ANSWER pennant is used to indicate 5 degrees
slide13
TURN
  • Examples
    • TURN PORT 3 ANSWER - turn 35 degrees to port
    • TURN STBD 290 - turn to course 290
turn from a line formation

True bearing of 030 T to guide

True bearing of 030 T to guide

TURN from a Line Formation

Before maneuver

After maneuver

Column formation

Line of Bearing

corpen
CORPEN
  • Wheeling - formation course is changed without altering arrangement of ships
  • Relative bearings to other ships remain the same, true bearings change
  • Visual signals
    • CORPEN pennant in conjunction with PORT or STBD flag to indicate direction of turn
    • Same numeral rules as TURN
corpen16
CORPEN
  • A corpen may only be executed out of a column or line abreast (including column open order, loose line abreast, diamond)
  • Limitations:
    • Column - 180 degrees
    • Line abreast - 90 degrees
    • Diamond - 30 degrees
  • For column - follow in wake of the guide
  • For line abreast - wheel formation
corpen from a column

Relative bearing of 000 R to guide

Relative bearing of 000 R to guide

CORPEN - from a Column

Before maneuver

After maneuver

Column formation

Column formation

corpen from a line abreast

Pivot ship

Relative bearing 270 R

Relative bearing 270 R to guide

CORPEN - from a Line Abreast

After maneuver

Before maneuver

Auto

shift of

guide

Line Abreast to STBD

Line Abreast to PORT

slide19
FORM
  • Used to change formation bearing without changing the formation course
  • Guide maintains formation course and remaining ships form on new line of bearing
  • Visual signal:
    • FORM pennant and three numerals indicate true line of bearing
    • FORM pennant PORT/ STBD and one or two numerals indicate relative line of bearing
slide20
FORM
  • Examples:
    • FORM 150 - all ships form a line of bearing along 150T from the guide
    • FORM PORT 15 - all ships form on a line of bearing 150 to port of formation course
search turn
SEARCH TURN
  • Used to search a large body of water in close quarters - downed pilot, etc
  • Ships must start in a line abreast
  • Wing ship away from turn assumes the guide and immediately maneuvers
  • Other ships turn when previous ship is astern
  • See figure 6.4
screens
Screens
  • An arrangement of ships, aircraft, subs for the protection of main body
  • Normally designed to protect against one threat (ie. air, sub, surface)
  • Design must be continuously evaluated to ensure threat protection
sector screen
Sector Screen
  • Units are assigned areas of responsibility rather than points
  • Units are required to patrol sectors
  • Avoid maintaining base course and speed so that it cannot be determined passively
  • Center is ZZ
sector screen24
Sector Screen
  • Boundaries are ordered by 4 numerals
    • 2 for left in 10’s of degrees true
    • 2 for right
  • Depth is also four numerals
    • 2 for inner limit in thousands of yards
    • 2 for outer
  • Sector boundaries are followed by call sign of ship
sector screen25
Sector Screen
  • Example:0106-4575 DESIG M4NThe sector for M4N is from 010T-060T, 4,500-7,500 yards
maneuvering sea customs
Maneuvering Sea Customs
  • Small ships do not hamper the movements of large ships, especially in restricted waters
  • Ships not in station shall remain clear of those in station
  • Do not pass through formations
  • Customary rules do not relieve ships from rules of the road responsibility
signal flags
Signal Flags
  • Know the following:
    • Letter flags
    • Numeral flags (not pennants)
    • ANSWER flag and meaning
    • PORT/ STBD flag
    • TURN/ CORPEN/ FORM flags
    • DESIG
  • See figure 5.2
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