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Mobile Technology for Business Welcome to tomorrow? An evolution A revolution A Supporting Technology Application Domains Mobile Computing – an evolution Primitive Simple Limited Capacity Cumbersome Unattactive Sophisticated Powerful Complex Refined Elegant

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Mobile Technology for Business

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Mobile Technology for Business

  • Welcome to tomorrow?

    • An evolution

    • A revolution

  • A Supporting Technology

  • Application Domains

Khawar Hameed, School of Computing, Staffordshire University ©


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Mobile Computing – an evolution

Primitive

Simple

Limited Capacity

Cumbersome

Unattactive

Sophisticated

Powerful

Complex

Refined

Elegant


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Mobile Computing – a revolution

  • Look around you, we are entering the age of a truly mobile society

    • the expectation for mobile information systems and access will grow

    • the issue of database support and information access arises

  • Mobile Computing and Technology radically changes how we do things

    • The personal perspective (our private life)

    • The organisational perspective (our working life)

  • Mobile Computing and Technology is becoming an integrated and expected part of our existence

    • Would you give up the freedom of owning a mobile phone?

    • A luxury or a necessity?

Khawar Hameed, School of Computing, Staffordshire University ©


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Definitions..

  • “…information at any time, any place, and in any form. Whether in the office, at home or virtually any place on earth.”

  • “…mobile computing is associated with mobility of hardware, data and software in computer applications.”

  • “…mobile computing is the use of computers in a non-static environment.”

  • “The combination of mobile computers and wireless communications is promoting the evolution of information technologies to enable an environment that is often called nomadic computing.”

Khawar Hameed, School of Computing, Staffordshire University ©


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Worldwide wireless subscribers (prediction)

700

600

500

Americas

Europe

400

Japan

300

others

total

200

100

Source: Mobile Communications, Jochen Schiller

0

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

Khawar Hameed, School of Computing, Staffordshire University ©


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700000

600000

Analog total

500000

GSM total

400000

CDMA total

subscribers (x 1000)

TDMA total

300000

PDC/PHS total

200000

total

100000

0

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

Mobile Phone Subscribers Worldwide

Source: Mobile Communications, Jochen Schiller

Khawar Hameed, School of Computing, Staffordshire University ©


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Future Technology (prediction)

Khawar Hameed, School of Computing, Staffordshire University ©


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Mobile TechnologyApplications

  • Wireless Voice/Data Communications

  • Global Positioning Systems

  • Remote Imaging

  • Access to Information Systems

Khawar Hameed, School of Computing, Staffordshire University ©


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Mobile ComputingThe sharp edge of technology

Khawar Hameed, School of Computing, Staffordshire University ©


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Mobile ComputingInfrastructure (behind the sharp edge)

Systems Integration

Interface Considerations

Communications, Connectivity and Network Infrastructure

Applications

Persistent Storage Media

Usability Issues

Data Repositories/

Database Systems

Khawar Hameed, School of Computing, Staffordshire University ©


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Mobile TechnologyApplications

  • Transport

    • transmission of news, road condition, weather, music via DAB

    • personal communication using GSM

    • position and tracking via GPS

    • local ad-hoc network with vehicles close-by to prevent accidents, guidance system, redundancy

    • vehicle data (e.g., from buses, high-speed trains) can be transmitted in advance for maintenance

  • Emergencies

    • early transmission of patient data to the hospital, current status, first diagnosis

    • replacement of a fixed infrastructure in case of earthquakes, hurricanes, fire etc.

    • crisis, war, ...

Khawar Hameed, School of Computing, Staffordshire University ©


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Mobile Technology Applications

  • Travelling salesmen

    • direct access to customer files stored in a central location

    • consistent databases for all agents/clients

    • mobile office

  • Entertainment, education

    • outdoor Internet access

    • intelligent travel guide with up-to-datelocation dependent information

    • ad-hoc networks formulti user games

  • Healthcare

    • Health Care Support

Built

150BC

Khawar Hameed, School of Computing, Staffordshire University ©


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Mobility and DatabasesIntroduction to Mobile Computing

  • Mobile Database Support

    • Database technology to support the distribution of data in a mobile environment for a range of application domains.

    • Requires a re-evaluation of database concepts and implementation

  • Distribution to any wireless or wired device

  • Back office infrastructure and framework

Khawar Hameed, School of Computing, Staffordshire University ©


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Mobile Information Systems Generic Strategies

  • Fragmentation of the database – each mobile device has a fragment

Khawar Hameed, School of Computing, Staffordshire University ©


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Mobile Database Distribution Generic Strategies

  • Fragmentation

    • Synchronisation

      • at site of the central DB - after all remote transactions have been completed.

      • remotely – using a connection mechanism

    • Usage after fragmentation is restricted/constrained

      • at the central source database

      • at mobile devices

    • Local (mobile) query capability

    • Remote query capability

Khawar Hameed, School of Computing, Staffordshire University ©


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Mobile Database Distribution Generic Strategies

  • Complete Distribution

    • Each device contains a fragment

    • The combination (union) of fragments represents the complete DB

Khawar Hameed, School of Computing, Staffordshire University ©


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Mobile Database Distribution Generic Strategies

  • Complete Distribution

    • Technically complex and unfeasible

    • Each device must have a functional DB (unrealistic in context of current technology)

    • All nodes must be available (unrealistic because of frequent disconnections)

    • Costly: data/query transmission across a wireless medium

Khawar Hameed, School of Computing, Staffordshire University ©


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Mobile Database Distribution Generic Strategies

  • Client Server

    • Multiple heterogeneous client access

    • Similar to conventional client server access

    • Transformation layer supports data transformation for different and common protocols

Transformation Layer

Khawar Hameed, School of Computing, Staffordshire University ©


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Mobile Location Based ServicesArchitecture

Khawar Hameed, School of Computing, Staffordshire University ©


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Mobile Database Distribution Directions

  • High speed data/database access

    • Wireless multimedia

    • Real-time multimedia

  • 1/3rd of DB developers are targeting mobile or wireless devices

    • In 2002 twice as many databases will be extended to mobile clients

    • Oracle

    • Sybase UltraLite – SQL Anywhere

    • Centura Software – db.star

    • Microsoft

  • SyncML

    • Industry wide open protocol for mobile data synchronisation

    • (www.syncml.org)

Khawar Hameed, School of Computing, Staffordshire University ©


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