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Missing in Interaction Classroom interactions support male dominance Unequal enforcement of classroom rules Male dominance commands teacher attention Focusing on difficult-to-manage boys Restlessness and raising hands Teacher Responses to Student Work Four Types of Responses

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Missing in Interaction

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Missing in Interaction

  • Classroom interactions support male dominance

    • Unequal enforcement of classroom rules

    • Male dominance commands teacher attention

      • Focusing on difficult-to-manage boys

      • Restlessness and raising hands


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Teacher Responses to Student Work

  • Four Types of Responses

    • Praises: “Good Job”

    • Remediates: “Check your addition”

    • Criticizes: “No, you’ve missed number 4”

    • Accepts: “Okay.”

  • Gender gap in valuable feedback

    • Boys are more likely to receive all 4 types of feedback

    • Girls are more likely to receive the last form of feedback

  • Intelligence vs. Neatness and Presentation

  • The Bombing Rate


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Gender Inequalities on the Playground

  • Gender segregation on the playground

    • Children tend to self segregate by gender during play

      • This self-segregation is largely controlled by the boys

    • Boys control ten times the playground area in comparison to girls

      • Actors vs. Spectators

      • “Girls are not good enough to play with boys”

    • Pollution Rituals (Cooties)


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Jay MacLeod and Social Reproduction

Conflict Constructivist draws from Bourdieu

  • Focuses on social inequalities as products of complex interactions

  • Purpose of education: social reproduction

    • Students from backgrounds rich in the three forms of capital have the preferred cultural capital that enables them to function in school

    • Students that possess the appropriate cultural capital will be recognized as “advanced” leaving those that do not possess the same cultural capital left to reproduce their habitus

  • Masked through the ideology of meritocracy: individuals who do not have the desired cultural capital are labeled as lacking in intelligence and the drive to succeed

  • Lack of agency: conflict constructivists leave very little room for social mobility, leading to a somewhat bleak and determinist view of schooling and the reproduction of inequalities


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Ain’t No Makin’ It

  • Offers tangible evidence of social reproduction within school

  • Jay MacLeod researches the intersection of structure, agency, and culture within social reproduction in a lower class neighborhood termed “Claredon Heights”

    • Claredon Heights: classified as what we know as “the projects”- government funded, lower class, urban residential areas.


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Teenagers in Claredon Heights

  • The Hallway Hangers: a group of predominantly white high school boys that reject notions of meritocracy and engage in self destructive acts such as drinking, consuming drugs, dealing drugs, and ditching school.

  • The Brothers: a group of black high school boys who embrace notions of meritocracy, envision bright futures for themselves, and generally stay away from activities characteristic of the hallway hangers.


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Ambitions and Desires

  • Family members, friends, and school officials such as teachers all influence these students’ ambitions and desires.

    • Hallway Hangers: Like their families, they reject meritocracy and the notion that education provides a vehicle toward success

    • The Brothers: Like their families, embrace the ideology of meritocracy and base their self–worth on its accomplishment whereby education is a crucial component.


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Conclusions

  • Though it appears that the brothers’ ambitions will lead them to a path out of Claredon Heights, McLeod reveals that both the hallway hangers and the brothers remain in the lower class from which they came thus reproducing inequalities


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Annette LareauFamily-School Relationships

  • Argument: Class related cultural factors shape parents’ compliance with teachers’ requests for parental participation in schooling

    • What do schools ask of parents in the educational experience of young children? (Variations in teacher expectations?)

    • How do parents respond to schools’ requests?


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Colton School

Located in a working class community

Parents employed in semiskilled and unskilled occupations

Most parents are high school graduates but many are dropouts

Students: 1/2 white, 1/3 Latino, rest are African American or Asian

1/2 students qualify for free lunch (measure of SES)

Prescott School

Located in a upper-middle class suburban community

Parents employed as professionals, executives, and managers

Most parents are college educated with fathers holding advanced degrees

Students: Predominantly white

No free lunch program (measure of SES)

Studied first grade classrooms in 2 different schools


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Parental Involvement

  • Defined: A partnership between parents and schools that include

    • attending school events

    • reading to their children

    • communicating concerns about their children to the schools

    • reviewing and reinforcing material learned in class

    • volunteering in the classroom

    • partnerships with deference to teachers and principals as the experts


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Conclusions

  • Parents who agreed with the teachers’ and administrators’ definition of partnership offered an educational advantage to their children

  • Parents who turned over responsibility of education to the professional could negatively affect their child’s schooling

  • Responses to involvement were much higher at Prescott in comparison to Colton indicating class differences in parental involvement.


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Colton

Parent-teacher conferences: 60%

Open House: 35%

Volunteering in Classroom: 3%

Rarely initiated contact with teachers

Raised nonacademic issues

Awkward interactions

Little reinforcement of schoolwork

Prescott

Parent-teacher conferences: 100%

Open House: 96%

Volunteering in Classroom 43%

Frequently initiated contact with teachers

Raised academic issues and concerns

Comfortable interactions

Consistent reinforcement of schoolwork

Differences in Parental Involvement


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Factors Structuring Parental Participation

  • Educational Capabilities

    • Colton Parents: struggled in school, doubts about their capabilities to help their children, viewed teachers as professionals responsible for the education of their children

    • Prescott Parents: college graduates and advanced degrees, confident about their abilities to help their children, viewed teachers as partners in educating their children

  • Income and Work Schedules

    • Colton Parents: Less disposable income and inflexible work schedules

    • Prescott Parents: More disposable income and flexible work schedules

  • Information About Schooling

    • Colton Parents socialize more with extended family networks

    • Prescott Parents socialize more with other parents from the school


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