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Micronutrients: Calcium. major component of bones, teeth Required for many physiological processes Roles of parathyroid hormone, calcitonin bone loss begins to increase during young adulthood (>35 years) Estrogen and menopause designer estrogen called Evista

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micronutrients calcium
Micronutrients: Calcium
  • major component of bones, teeth
  • Required for many physiological processes
  • Roles of parathyroid hormone, calcitonin
  • bone loss begins to increase during young adulthood (>35 years)
  • Estrogen and menopause
  • designer estrogen called Evista
  • lack of calcium > porous bones (osteoporosis)
calcium cont d
Calcium, cont’d.
  • daily requirements:
    • adolescence = 1200 mg/day
    • non-pregnant, non-lactating women = 800 mg/day
    • after menopause = 1500 mg/day
  • typical intake of post-men. women = 500 mg/day
  • food sources of calcium: dairy products, green leafy vegetables
  • http://www.lowfatweekly.com/calcium_content_in_foods.htm
  • absorption requires vitamin D
osteoporosis
Osteoporosis
  • 80% of osteoporotic individuals are female
  • 8 million women, 2 million men in U.S. currently suffer from osteoporosis
  • 1 out of 2 women will be affected after age 50 years
  • $38 million / day spent on treatment
  • Risk factors:
    • gender, age, smoking, family history, calcium intake, sedentary lifestyle, drinking
osteoporosis4
Osteoporosis
  • Bones most often affected:

vertebrae, hips, wrists

slide6
Iron
  • part of hemoglobin
  • deficiency: fewer red blood cells, decreased oxygen availability
  • low levels result in “iron deficiency anemia”
  • women susceptible due to monthly blood loss
  • daily requirements:
    • premenopause: 50-70 mg/day
    • postmenopause: 30 mg/day
  • foods rich in iron: red meat, liver, rice, beans, eggs, dried fruit
  • http://www.dialadietitian.org/resources/handouts/fe-food.html
folic acid
Folic acid
  • form of vitamin B (folate)
  • foods rich in folic acid:
    • green leafy veggies, lentils, asparagus, broccoli, orange juice, fortified cereals, liver
  • important during childbearing years
  • may also protect against heart disease, cancer, psychiatric disorders
  • important for regulating blood homocysteine levels
homocysteine
Homocysteine
  • metabolite of the amino acid methionine
  • can be “recycled” to form methionine or can be degraded into cysteine and excereted
  • B vitamins (Vit B12, folate, Vit B6) are required for these processes
  • Vit B12 and folate participate in “recycling” of homocysteine into methionine
  • Vit B6 required for degradation into cysteine
  • High levels of homocysteine can adversely affect many tissues
dangers of high homocysteine levels
Dangers of high homocysteine levels
  • Correlation between high hcy levels and cardiovascular disease:
    • Increased activation of clotting factors
    • Increased atherosclerosis
  • Correlation between low folate, high hcy and neural tube defects during pregnancy
  • Correlation between high hcy levels and schizophrenia
  • Genetic defects in metabolic enzymes can also contribute
phytoestrogens
Phytoestrogens
  • Plant compounds that are structurally similar to estrogen
  • Are “weak” estrogens or antiestrogens
  • Isoflavones, lignans, coumestans
  • Present in soy foods, oilseeds (e.g., flaxseed), and whole grain cereals
  • Cultures in which soy is a regular part of daily diet (~200 mg/day) have:
    • Decreased rates of breast, ovarian cancer
    • Decreased menopausal symptoms (<25% vs. 80%)
    • Decreased cardiovascular disease
isoflavone content of various foods
Isoflavone content of various foods
  • Roasted soybeans: 162.5 mg
  • Textured vegetable protein: 138.2 mg
  • Green soybean: 135.4 mg
  • Tofu: 33.7 mg
  • Soy hot dog: 15 mg
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