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Lecture Objectives: examine the interdependencies among the 5 sectors of a destination mix analyze t he e nvironments for t ourism PowerPoint PPT Presentation

GEOG2056 Tourism and the Shrinking World # 6 Destination mix & the environments for tourism Lecture Objectives: examine the interdependencies among the 5 sectors of a destination mix analyze t he e nvironments for t ourism the impact of external factors on holiday makers Reference:

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Lecture Objectives: examine the interdependencies among the 5 sectors of a destination mix analyze t he e nvironments for t ourism

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GEOG2056 Tourism and the Shrinking World

#6 Destination mix & the environments for tourism

Lecture Objectives:

  • examine the interdependencies among the 5 sectors of a destination mix

  • analyze the environments for tourism

    • the impact of external factors on holiday makers

      Reference:

      Textbook (2006), Chapter #1: pp. 15-36; Chapter 10: pp. 245 – 272


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Interdependenciesamong the 5 sectors of a destination mix


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What is a Destination Mix?

A destination consists of a mix of 5 elements, which are interdependent to produce a satisfying holiday experience for tourists:

  • Attractions

  • Facilities

  • Infrastructure and

  • Transportation

  • Hospitality


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Destinations may be primaryorsecondary(sometimes also called a stopover or touring destination)

  • A primary destination - is

    • attractive enough to be the primary motivation for tourism visits

    • aimed at satisfying tourists for several days or longer


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  • A secondaryor

    stopover destination -

    • is either an interesting or a necessary place to visit on the way to a primary destination

    • aims at satisfying tourists for 1-2 days

    • may be interesting enough to attract tourists on their way somewhere else, or

    • may, in fact, be a required stop on the way to a final destination.

      * Certain areas can be primary destinations for one segment of the market or stopover destinations for other segments.


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Anattraction may be permanent or temporary:

  • Site attractions are

    • attractions of a physical nature

    • largely permanent

    • with fixed locations

  • Event attractions are

    • short in duration

    • with changeable location (can be changed)

    • largely dependent upon the resource base


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  • Drawing power of an attraction:

    Attractions may also be defined in terms of the distance from which they are able to draw people, thus being significant

    • locally

    • state/provincial-wide

    • regionally

    • nationally or

    • internationally


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Tourists are motivated to visit a destination because of its certain cultural and natural characteristics:

  • Natural resources

  • Climate

  • Culture

  • History

  • Ethnicity

  • Accessibility

  • Development and design

  • Event


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Facilities: serving visitors away from home. Tourism facilities are generally referred to:

  • Lodging

  • Food and beverage

  • Support industries


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Infrastructure & Transportation

Attractions and facilities are not accessible to tourists’ use until basic infrastructures have been developed. They include:

  • Water systems

  • Communication networks

  • Health care facilities

  • Transportation terminals

  • Power sources

  • Sewage/drainage areas

  • Streets/highways

  • Security systems


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Hospitality resources are referred to

  • general feeling of welcome that visitors receive while visiting a destination

  • way that services are delivered by tourism personnel

  • general feeling of warmth from the local community

    *a combination of a certain amount of knowledge and a positive attitude that results in specific hospitable behaviours.


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How can hospitality resources be improved?

  • training tourism personnel to be hospitable

  • encouraging positive feelings towards tourism and tourists on the part of the local residents

    Hospitality attitude training

    • Attitude toward self

    • Attitude toward others

    • Attitude toward subject matter

      Encouraging positive feelings towards tourism and tourists

    • Teaching specific behaviour

    • Community awareness programs


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The Environments for Tourism:Impact of external factors on holiday makers


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The impact of external factors on holiday makers(your textbook, 2006, pp. 247)


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The Effects of Culture on Travel

  • 4 possible strategies for overcoming cultural barriers when marketing internationally

    • Adapt

    • Do no adapt

    • Pattern globalization

    • Change the culture


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The Effect of Time on Travel

Our time can be spent in any one of the three ways:

  • Time Divisions (spending time)

    Maintenance

    TimeWork

    Leisure

    (Mill & Morrison, 2006, pp. 253)


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  • Leisure Time

    Leisure time may be thought of as being divided into three categories shown below:

    Weekdays

    LeisureWeekends

    Vacations

    (Mill & Morrison, 2006, pp.257)

** What are the implications for tourism industry?


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Socio-economic variables &their effects on tourism demand

  • Age:

    The relationship between tourism and age has two components:

    • The amount of leisure time available relative to age

    • The type and extent of activities undertaken at various age levels

** What are the implications for tourism industry?


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  • Income (Personal Income Distribution (Mill & Morrison, 2006, pp. 261):

    It is important to see that the income spent on travel is spent at the expense of something else. Travel expenditures are in competition with other expenditures, some of which are discretionary:

    Personal income

  • TaxesDisposable income (可支配收入)

  • Personal outlaysDiscretionary income (可任意花費收入)

  • Consumer durables (耐用消費品)SavingsRecreation

  • Mint coatStereoSavingsTrips to Hawaii

** What are the implications for tourism industry?


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  • Gender

  • Education

  • Sexuality

  • Effect ofLife-cycleStages


  • Login