GEOG2056 Tourism and the Shrinking World
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GEOG2056 Tourism and the Shrinking World # 6 Destination mix & the environments for tourism Lecture Objectives: examine the interdependencies among the 5 sectors of a destination mix analyze t he e nvironments for t ourism the impact of external factors on holiday makers Reference:

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GEOG2056 Tourism and the Shrinking World

#6 Destination mix & the environments for tourism

Lecture Objectives:

  • examine the interdependencies among the 5 sectors of a destination mix

  • analyze the environments for tourism

    • the impact of external factors on holiday makers

      Reference:

      Textbook (2006), Chapter #1: pp. 15-36; Chapter 10: pp. 245 – 272


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Interdependenciesamong the 5 sectors of a destination mix


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What is a Destination Mix?

A destination consists of a mix of 5 elements, which are interdependent to produce a satisfying holiday experience for tourists:

  • Attractions

  • Facilities

  • Infrastructure and

  • Transportation

  • Hospitality


Destinations may be primary or secondary sometimes also called a stopover or touring destination l.jpg
Destinations may be primaryorsecondary(sometimes also called a stopover or touring destination)

  • A primary destination - is

    • attractive enough to be the primary motivation for tourism visits

    • aimed at satisfying tourists for several days or longer


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  • A secondaryor

    stopover destination -

    • is either an interesting or a necessary place to visit on the way to a primary destination

    • aims at satisfying tourists for 1-2 days

    • may be interesting enough to attract tourists on their way somewhere else, or

    • may, in fact, be a required stop on the way to a final destination.

      * Certain areas can be primary destinations for one segment of the market or stopover destinations for other segments.


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Anattraction may be permanent or temporary:

  • Site attractions are

    • attractions of a physical nature

    • largely permanent

    • with fixed locations

  • Event attractions are

    • short in duration

    • with changeable location (can be changed)

    • largely dependent upon the resource base


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  • Drawing power of an attraction:

    Attractions may also be defined in terms of the distance from which they are able to draw people, thus being significant

    • locally

    • state/provincial-wide

    • regionally

    • nationally or

    • internationally


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Tourists are motivated to visit a destination because of its certain cultural and natural characteristics:

  • Natural resources

  • Climate

  • Culture

  • History

  • Ethnicity

  • Accessibility

  • Development and design

  • Event


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Facilities: certain cultural and natural characteristics:serving visitors away from home. Tourism facilities are generally referred to:

  • Lodging

  • Food and beverage

  • Support industries


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Infrastructure & Transportation certain cultural and natural characteristics:

Attractions and facilities are not accessible to tourists’ use until basic infrastructures have been developed. They include:

  • Water systems

  • Communication networks

  • Health care facilities

  • Transportation terminals

  • Power sources

  • Sewage/drainage areas

  • Streets/highways

  • Security systems


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Hospitality resources certain cultural and natural characteristics:are referred to

  • general feeling of welcome that visitors receive while visiting a destination

  • way that services are delivered by tourism personnel

  • general feeling of warmth from the local community

    *a combination of a certain amount of knowledge and a positive attitude that results in specific hospitable behaviours.


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How can hospitality resources be improved? certain cultural and natural characteristics:

  • training tourism personnel to be hospitable

  • encouraging positive feelings towards tourism and tourists on the part of the local residents

    Hospitality attitude training

    • Attitude toward self

    • Attitude toward others

    • Attitude toward subject matter

      Encouraging positive feelings towards tourism and tourists

    • Teaching specific behaviour

    • Community awareness programs


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The Environments for Tourism certain cultural and natural characteristics::Impact of external factors on holiday makers


The impact of external factors on holiday makers your textbook 2006 pp 247 l.jpg
The impact of external factors on holiday makers certain cultural and natural characteristics:(your textbook, 2006, pp. 247)


The effects of culture on travel l.jpg
The Effects of Culture on Travel certain cultural and natural characteristics:

  • 4 possible strategies for overcoming cultural barriers when marketing internationally

    • Adapt

    • Do no adapt

    • Pattern globalization

    • Change the culture


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The Effect of Time on Travel certain cultural and natural characteristics:

Our time can be spent in any one of the three ways:

  • Time Divisions (spending time)

    Maintenance

    Time Work

    Leisure

    (Mill & Morrison, 2006, pp. 253)


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  • Leisure Time certain cultural and natural characteristics:

    Leisure time may be thought of as being divided into three categories shown below:

    Weekdays

    LeisureWeekends

    Vacations

    (Mill & Morrison, 2006, pp.257)

** What are the implications for tourism industry?


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Socio-economic variables & certain cultural and natural characteristics:their effects on tourism demand

  • Age:

    The relationship between tourism and age has two components:

    • The amount of leisure time available relative to age

    • The type and extent of activities undertaken at various age levels

** What are the implications for tourism industry?


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  • Income certain cultural and natural characteristics:(Personal Income Distribution (Mill & Morrison, 2006, pp. 261):

    It is important to see that the income spent on travel is spent at the expense of something else. Travel expenditures are in competition with other expenditures, some of which are discretionary:

    Personal income

  • Taxes Disposable income (可支配收入)

  • Personal outlays Discretionary income (可任意花費收入)

  • Consumer durables (耐用消費品) Savings Recreation

  • Mint coat Stereo Savings Trips to Hawaii

** What are the implications for tourism industry?


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  • Gender certain cultural and natural characteristics:

  • Education

  • Sexuality

  • Effect ofLife-cycleStages


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