Food systems in health
Download
1 / 93

Food Systems in Health. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 311 Views
  • Updated On :

Food Systems in Health Session 2 Health Implications Food, Health, Nutrition Julie B. Hirsch, Ph.D. Director, Product Development, WellGen, Inc. Member Adjunct Faculty of Food Science, Rutgers June 29 2006 CONTENT Worth being familiar with Important to know Big Ideas &

Related searches for Food Systems in Health.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Food Systems in Health.' - Gabriel


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Food systems in health l.jpg

Food Systems in Health

Session 2

Health Implications


Food health nutrition l.jpg

Food, Health, Nutrition

Julie B. Hirsch, Ph.D.

Director, Product Development, WellGen, Inc.

Member Adjunct Faculty of Food Science, Rutgers

June 29 2006


Slide3 l.jpg

CONTENT

Worth being familiar with

Important to know

Big Ideas &

Enduring Understandings


3 key concepts i e big ideas l.jpg
3 Key Concepts (i.e. BIG ideas)

  • FOOD

    Food is a very complex system made up of lots of many individual components

  • HEALTH

    Functional foods are the healthy foods

  • NUTRITION

    There are no bad foods, just bad diets

    (includes poor diet choices and maybe bad parenting)



Slide6 l.jpg
FOOD individual components

Any substance that is eaten or otherwise taken into the body to sustain physiological life, provide energy and promote nutrition

the stuff that sits

on your plate


What is the make up of food l.jpg
What is the make-up of Food? individual components

  • Array of chemicals including

    • Water

    • Nutrients

    • Colors

    • Flavors

    • Other known and unknown compounds

    • Textures


Six classes of nutrients l.jpg
Six Classes of Nutrients individual components

  • Carbohydrate

  • Protein

  • Fat

  • Vitamins

  • Minerals

  • Water


Provide energy l.jpg

Carbohydrate individual components

Protein

Fat

Vitamins

Minerals

Water

YES

YES

YES

NO

NO

NO

Provide Energy?


Vitamins are l.jpg
Vitamins are individual components

  • a group of organic compounds

  • do NOT supply calories

  • a disparate group of compounds

    • they have little in common either chemically or in their metabolic function

  • water soluble or fat soluble


The power of vitamins l.jpg
The Power of Vitamins individual components

elimination from the diet must result in a more-or-less clearly defined deficiency disease, and restoration must cure or prevent that deficiency disease

Vitamins are ESSENTIAL


Water soluble vitamin functions l.jpg

Water Soluble Vitamins individual components

Vitamin C

B Vitamins

Thiamin (B1)

Riboflavin (B2)

Niacin

Vitamin B6

Folic Acid

Vitamin B12

Pantothenic Acid

Biotin

Water Soluble Vitamin Functions

Skin, bones,

infections

Release energy from

MACROnutrients:


Fat soluble vitamin functions l.jpg

Vitamin A individual components

Vitamin D

Vitamin E

Vitamin K

Fat Soluble Vitamin Functions


Vitamins and solubility l.jpg

Water Soluble individual components

Vitamin C

B Vitamins

Thiamin

Riboflavin

Niacin

Pantothenic Acid

Biotin

Vitamin B6

Folic Acid

Vitamin B12

Fat Soluble

Vitamin A

Vitamin D

Vitamin E

Vitamin K

Vitamins and Solubility


Composition examples l.jpg
Composition Examples individual components


Composition examples16 l.jpg
Composition Examples individual components

Salmon

Little Carbohydrate

Some Fat

LOTS Protein

LOTS of Antioxidants

Chocolate

LOTS Carbohydrate

Good Amount Fat

Some Protein

LOTS of Antioxidants

Tea

No macronutrients

NO micronutrients

LOTS of Antioxidants


What is the make up of food17 l.jpg
What is the make-up of Food? individual components

  • Array of chemicals including

    • Water

    • Nutrients

    • Colors

    • Flavors

    • Other known and unknown compounds

    • Textures


Health l.jpg

HEALTH individual components


Functional foods are healthy foods l.jpg

Functional Foods are Healthy Foods individual components


Health20 l.jpg
HEALTH individual components

A continued state of soundness and vigor of body and mind

It is reflected in low infant mortality, longevity, low morbidity to infectious and chronic disease (i.e. increased resistance).

feeling good inside and out


Functional food l.jpg
Functional Food individual components

1. Foods or dietary components that may provide a health benefit beyond basic nutrition1

2. General term for foods that provide an additional physiological benefit beyond that of meeting basic nutritional needs2

Inherently Functional

● Fresh produce

• Fresh fruit

• Fresh vegetables

● Skim milk

● Orange Juice

Imposed Functional

● Fortified & Enhanced foods

• Breads

• Energy bars

• Margarines

1http://www.ific.org/nutrition/functional/index.cfm

2Boyle and Anderson, Personal Nutrition, 5th ed. p.194


Composition examples22 l.jpg
Composition Examples individual components

Salmon

Little Carbohydrate

Some Fat

LOTS Protein

LOTS of Antioxidants

Chocolate

LOTS Carbohydrate

Good Amount Fat

Some Protein

LOTS of Antioxidants

Tea

No macronutrients

NO micronutrients

LOTS of Antioxidants


What is the make up of food23 l.jpg
What is the make-up of Food? individual components

  • Array of chemicals including

    • Water

    • Nutrients

    • Colors

    • Flavors

    • Other known and unknown compounds

    • Textures


Nutraceuticals l.jpg
Nutraceuticals individual components

Naturally-derived, bioactive compounds that have health promoting, disease preventing or medicinal properties

  • May be delivered in the form of

    • Food (Functional Food)

    • Dietary Supplement

      • or in both forms


Origin of healthy l.jpg

“Functional” Foods individual components

Origin of ‘healthy’

INTACT Plants and Foods

Bioactives

‘Functional Components’

Nutraceuticals

Dietary Supplements

Botanicals

Nutrients and Non-Nutrients

Fortified with

Nutraceuticals

Whole Foods


Antioxidants l.jpg
Antioxidants individual components

  • chemicals that prevent the oxidation of other compounds

Think RUST…

antioxidants prevent it in your body

Other terms:

Non-nutrients

Phytochemicals

Nutraceuticals

Bioactives


Phytonutrients l.jpg
Phytonutrients individual components


Chocolate and health l.jpg
Chocolate and Health individual components

Biological Effects

  • Anti-angiogenic

  • Anti-thrombotic

  • Vasodilatory

  • Anti-carcinogenic

  • Anti-inflammatory

Blumberg, J. Nutr. 133: 3244S-3246S, 2003


Salmon and health l.jpg
Salmon and Health individual components

Heart

Blumberg, J. Nutr. 133: 3244S-3246S, 2003


Tea and health l.jpg
Tea and Health individual components

Biological Effects

  • Anti-angiogenic

  • Anti-bacterial

  • Anti-carcinogenic

  • Anti-diabetic

  • Anti-inflammatory

  • Anti-thrombotic

  • Anti-oxidant

  • Anti-viral

  • Hypocholesterolemic

  • Hypoglycemic

  • Vasodilatory

Mechanism of Action?

Blumberg, J. Nutr. 133: 3244S-3246S, 2003


Tea composition is complex l.jpg
Tea Composition is Complex individual components

FLAVONOIDS

  • Flavan-3-ols

    CatechinsTheaflavins

    • Epigallocatechin (EGC)  Theaflavin (TF1)

    • Catechin (C)  Theaflavin-3-gallate (TF2a)

    • Epicatechin (EC)  Theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF2b)

    • Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)  Theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF3)

    • Gallocatechin gallate (GCG)

    • Epicatechin gallate (ECG)

    • Catechin gallate (CG)

      FLAVONOLS

  • Kaempferol

  • Myricetin

  • Quercetin

Bhagwat et. al. 2003.

http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/Data/Other/IFT2003_TeaFlav.pdf


Nutrigenomics l.jpg
NUTRIGENOMICS individual components

addresses the role of diet in gene expression


Slide33 l.jpg

FAT individual components

MACRONUTRIENTS, an Example


Good fats bad fats think blood and brain l.jpg

BAD individual components

raise LDL

lower HDL "good“ cholesterol

Saturated

Sources: Meat, dairy, eggs and seafood (Animal); coconut, palm oil (Plant)

Trans

Sources: Fried foods, processed foods with hydrogenated oils

☺GOOD

lower total cholesterol

lower LDL “bad” cholesterol

Monounsaturated

Sources: Nuts, canola, olive oil

Polyunsaturated

Sources: Seafood (Animal), Corn, soy, safflower, sunflower (Plant)

Omega 3’s = polyunsaturates

Good Fats/Bad FatsThink Blood and Brain


Health benefits from lipids l.jpg
Health Benefits from Lipids individual components

  • Cardiovascular health

  • Infant nutrition memory enhancement

  • Body weight management

  • Natural defense


Omega 3 fatty acid claims l.jpg

individual components

Omega-3 Fatty Acid claims

  • Examples of some structure/function claims:

    • Omega-3’s support cardiovascular health

    • Omega-3’s support healthy brain function

    • Omega-3’s support healthy brain and eye development

    • Omega-3’s support a healthy immune system

    • Omega-3’s are beneficial for health maintenance

      In using a structure/function claim the manufacturer is responsible for ensuring the accuracy and truthfulness of the claims; the FDA does not pre-approve the claims, however, they must be truthful and not misleading


Omega 3 products l.jpg

individual components

Omega 3 Products


Trans fats l.jpg

individual components

Trans Fats

  • Associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease

    • metabolic studies: a 1994 estimated 30,000 premature CHD deaths annually could be attributable to consumption of trans fatty acids

  • Because of the weight of the evidence, the FDA now requires including trans fatty acid content on the food label

Willett WC, Ascherio A. Trans fatty acids: Are the effects only marginal? Am J Public Health 1994; 84:722-724.


Nutrition l.jpg

NUTRITION individual components



Nutrition41 l.jpg
NUTRITION individual components

The sum of biochemical and physiological processes concerned with the growth, maintenance, and repair of the living body as a whole, or of its constituent organs

Graham Lusk, The Science of Nutrition, 1928

what happens to food once it passes your lips


Functions of food l.jpg
Functions of Food individual components

  • Provide energy (satisfy hunger)

  • Provide nutrients (satisfy nutrition)

  • Detect, treat, prevent illness manifestations

  • Initiate and maintain interpersonal relationships

  • Determine extent of interpersonal distance

  • Express socio-religious beliefs

  • Express social status prestige

  • Recognize special achievement

  • Cope with psychological stress

  • Reward/punish influence others behaviors

  • Detect, treat, prevent cultural behavior deviations

PHYSIO

LOGICAL

EMOTION

PSYCHO

LOGICAL


Origins of nutrition basic 4 l.jpg
Origins of Nutrition: Basic 4 individual components

  • Meat

  • Dairy

  • Vegetables

  • Grains


Basic 4 is old history l.jpg
Basic 4 is OLD History individual components

70s

60s


1992 food guide pyramid l.jpg
1992 Food Guide Pyramid individual components


Slide46 l.jpg

2005 individual componentsMyPyramid


Diet food nutrition health l.jpg
Diet – Food, Nutrition, Health individual components

  • Diet is related to five of the leading causes of death

    • Heart disease

    • Cancer

    • Stroke

    • Diabetes

    • Hypertension

  • Early nutrition science efforts concentrated on eliminating deficiency diseases

    • eliminated today in 1st world (like USA) given abundant food supply and practice of fortifying food with essential nutrients

  • Today, overnutrition, poor dietary habits, and environmental/lifestyle factors,contribute to development of degenerative and chronic diseases



Nutrition labels l.jpg
Nutrition Labels individual components


Dietary reference intakes dris l.jpg
Dietary Reference Intakes individual components(DRIs)

  • Reference values

    • quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes

    • used for planning and assessing diets for healthy people

  • Refer to average daily nutrient intake of individuals over time


Labeling requirements l.jpg
Labeling Requirements individual components

  • Macronutrients

  • Micronutrients

    • vitamin A

      • % vitamin A as beta-carotene

    • vitamin C

    • calcium

    • iron

RDI = Reference Daily Intake: reference value for vitamins, minerals and protein


Nutrition facts requirement l.jpg
Nutrition Facts - requirement individual components

1

Calories

Calories

Fat

2

Macronutrients

Cholesterol

3

Micronutrients

Sodium

Others

Cholesterol

Sodium

4

Carbohydrate

Protein

Vitamin A

Vitamin C

Calcium

Iron


More nutrition facts l.jpg
More Nutrition Facts individual components

Can add more nutrients to the Nutrition Facts panel if you fortify

Can highlight ‘healthfulness’ by including unsaturated fats


More facts l.jpg
More Facts individual components

Gotta have the label even if there’s not much to say!


Labeling requirements55 l.jpg
Labeling Requirements individual components

  • Macronutrients

  • Micronutrients

    • vitamin A

      • % vitamin A as beta-carotene

    • vitamin C

    • calcium

    • iron

If there is no RDI…

technically a non-nutrient,

do not need to label

RDI = Reference Daily Intake: reference value for vitamins, minerals and protein


Nutrients vs non nutrients l.jpg

Nutrients (RDIs) individual components

vitamin A

vitamin C

thiamin

riboflavin

niacin

calcium

iron

vitamin D

vitamin E

vitamin B6

folic acid

vitamin B12

phosphorus

iodine

magnesium

Non-Nutrient (NO RDIs)

natural, bioactive chemical compounds that have health promoting, disease preventing or medicinal properties

Examples, include any

Nutraceuticals

Phytochemicals

Bioactives

Antioxidants

Botanicals

Nutrients vs. Non-Nutrients


Health claims on labels l.jpg
Health claims on labels individual components


Types of claims allowed l.jpg
Types of Claims allowed individual components

LEAST

Scientific

Evidence

  • Health Claims

  • Qualified Health Claims

  • Structure/Function Claims

MOST

Scientific

Evidence


What about overeating l.jpg

WHAT ABOUT OVEREATING? individual components


It s all about calorie balance l.jpg

It’s All About Calorie Balance individual components

If you eat more calories than your body uses, they will be stored as fat


It s all about calorie balance61 l.jpg
It’s All About Calorie Balance individual components

  • One pound of body fat is equal to 3,500 Kcal

    • In theory, losing one pound requires a deficit of 3,500 calories

Eating 500 fewer calories per day - or expending 500 more calories - would result in losing one pound per week


Calories and energy balance not higher order math l.jpg
Calories and Energy Balance – NOT Higher order math individual components

Calories IN = Calories OUT Maintain Weight

Calories IN > Calories OUT GAIN Weight

Calories IN < Calories OUT LOSE Weight

To maintain a desirable weight, energy intakes should not exceed energy needs


Want to lose weight l.jpg
Want to Lose Weight? individual components

  • Calories

  • Fat

  • Carbs?


Obesity l.jpg

Obesity individual components


Slide65 l.jpg

December 13-19, 2003 individual components


Obesity prevalence 1960 s 1990 s l.jpg
Obesity Prevalence individual components1960’s – 1990’s


Obesity trends among u s adults brfss 1985 l.jpg

No Data <10% 10%–14% individual components

Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1985

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)


Obesity trends among u s adults brfss 1986 l.jpg

No Data <10% 10%–14% individual components

Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1986

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)


Obesity trends among u s adults brfss 1987 l.jpg

No Data <10% 10%–14% individual components

Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1987

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)


Obesity trends among u s adults brfss 1988 l.jpg

No Data <10% 10%–14% individual components

Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1988

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)


Obesity trends among u s adults brfss 1989 l.jpg

No Data <10% 10%–14% individual components

Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1989

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)


Obesity trends among u s adults brfss 1990 l.jpg

No Data <10% 10%–14% individual components

Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1990

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)


Obesity trends among u s adults brfss 1991 l.jpg

No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% individual components

Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1991

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)


Obesity trends among u s adults brfss 1992 l.jpg

No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% individual components

Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1992

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)


Obesity trends among u s adults brfss 1993 l.jpg

No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% individual components

Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1993

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)


Obesity trends among u s adults brfss 1994 l.jpg

No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% individual components

Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1994

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)


Obesity trends among u s adults brfss 1995 l.jpg

No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% individual components

Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1995

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)


Obesity trends among u s adults brfss 1996 l.jpg

No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% individual components

Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1996

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)


Obesity trends among u s adults brfss 1997 l.jpg

No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% ≥20

Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1997

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)


Obesity trends among u s adults brfss 1998 l.jpg

No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% ≥20

Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1998

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)


Obesity trends among u s adults brfss 1999 l.jpg

No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% ≥20

Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1999

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)


Obesity trends among u s adults brfss 2000 l.jpg

No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% ≥20

Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 2000

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)


Obesity trends among u s adults brfss 2001 l.jpg
Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults ≥20BRFSS, 2001

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)

No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25%


Slide85 l.jpg

Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults ≥20BRFSS, 2002

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)

(*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’4” person)

No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25%


Obesity trends among u s adults brfss 2003 l.jpg
Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults ≥20BRFSS, 2003

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)

No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25%


Obesity trends among u s adults brfss 2004 l.jpg
Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults ≥20BRFSS, 2004

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)

No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25%


Slide88 l.jpg

1991 ≥20

Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS,1991, 1996, 2004

(*BMI 30, or about 30 lbs overweight for 5’4” person)

1996

2004

No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25%


Prevalence of obesity and dieting 1960s 1990s l.jpg
Prevalence of Obesity and Dieting ≥201960s – 1990s


Who do we blame l.jpg
Who do we BLAME? ≥20

FOOD

LIFESTYLE

TRANSPORTATION

COMMUNITIES


3 key concepts i e big ideas91 l.jpg
3 Key Concepts (i.e. BIG ideas) ≥20

  • FOOD

    Food is a very complex system made up of lots of many individual components

  • HEALTH

    Functional foods are the healthy foods

  • NUTRITION

    There are no bad foods, just bad diets

    (includes poor diet choices and maybe bad parenting)


Food science resources l.jpg
Food Science Resources ≥20

http://members.ift.org/IFT/Education/TeacherResources/


Thank you l.jpg

Thank You ≥20

Julie B. Hirsch, Ph.D.

WellGen, Inc.

[email protected]


ad