Training of Trainer: Capacity Building of Indian Automotive Companies - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Training of Trainer: Capacity Building of Indian Automotive Companies Light House, Convention Centre, India Habitat Centre, New Delhi 29 th September ~ 1 st October, 2004 Program of Activities Day 1 (0930 ~ 1700) 0900 ~ 0930 Registration 0930 ~ 0940 Welcome Address

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Training of Trainer:

Capacity Building of

Indian Automotive Companies

Light House, Convention Centre, India Habitat Centre, New Delhi

29th September ~ 1st October, 2004

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Program of Activities

Day 1 (0930 ~ 1700)

0900 ~ 0930 Registration

0930 ~ 0940Welcome Address

0940 ~ 0950Launch of the ToT programme: European Union

0950 ~ 1100Overview of EU India Network for Sustainability

1100 ~ 1110Coffee Break

1110 ~ 1300Overview of European Buyers Requirements on technological, quality, environmental and social issues

1300 ~ 1400Lunch Break

1400 ~ 1530Overview of training purpose, objective and content

1530 ~ 1540Coffee Break

1540 ~ 1700Introduction to methodological skills of trainers

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Program of Activities

Day 2 (0900 ~ 1700)

0900 ~ 1015Overview of Training Process

1015 ~ 1100Overview of Designing and developing training

1100 ~ 1110Coffee Break

1110 ~ 1300Overview of Delivering Training

1300 ~ 1400Lunch Break

1400 ~ 1445Overview of Developing Training Manuals

1445 ~ 1530Overview of Evaluating Training

1530 ~ 1540Coffee Break

1540 ~ 1630Overview of Administering and Follow-up of Training

1630 ~ 1700Overview of Marketing and Sale of Training

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Program of Activities

Day 3 (0900 ~ 1700)

0900 ~ 1015Introduction to International Systems, Standards and Certifications for global market and sustainable entrepreneurship

1015 ~ 1100Introduction to Environmental Management System

1100 ~ 1110Coffee Break

1110 ~ 1200Introduction to Occupational Health & Safety

1200 ~ 1300Introduction to Social Accountability

1300 ~ 1400Lunch Break

1400 ~ 1530Introduction to Integrated Product Policy and Environment

1530 ~ 1540Coffee Break

1540 ~ 1700Introduction to Sustainability for International Markets

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EINS Project Background

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What is EINS?

  • EU-India Network for Sustainability – Dialogue – Management Training – European in the Automotive Industry


  • To make your company a company of choice for your stakeholders

  • The EINS initiative – an strategic alliance of partners in international capacity building – aims at enhancing the capabilities of the Indian automotive component industry to adopt and implement environmental, social and quality standards for competitiveness and productivity gains.

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Four reasons to participate:

The EINS Initiative will enable you and your managers to:

  • Improve your market position and your stakeholder value

  • Enable your company to achieve greater competitiveness in the global market

  • Enhance the capabilities of your company to manage the local and global opportunities, challenges and requirements

  • Enable your company to balance the environmental, social, and economic capital.

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Target Group and Milestones

  • 240 small and medium sized enterprises of the automotive components industry

  • 100 Stakeholders in the Industry

  • Delhi and Chennai

  • conduct an assessment

  • train local intermediaries, consultants, industry, and other stakeholders

  • establish an EU-India Network on Sustainability Management

  • conduct a best practice roundtable

  • develop a brochure

  • design a web portal on sustainability

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  • Phase 1: Conduct Research

  • Phase 1: Release assessment report

  • Phase 2: Public brochure, Public website

  • Phase 2: First and second stakeholder meeting

  • Phase 3: Training course implementation

  • Phase 4: Exposure

  • cross section: interim meeting

  • cross section: submit interim report

  • cross section: final meeting

  • cross section: submit final report

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  • Phase 1: Planning & Assessment

  • Phase 2: Promotion & Stakeholder Meetings

  • Phase 3: Training & Capacity Building

  • Phase 4: First and second stakeholder meeting

  • Phase 5: Post Project Sustainability

  • Cross section tasks

  • Publications and other outputs

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InWEnt - Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbHDivision Sustainable Market Economy Weyerstraße 78-83 50676 Cologne,

Confederation of Indian Industry India Habitat Centre 4th Floor, Core 4a, Lodi Road New Delhi 110 003, India

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Adelphi Research

AREC – Austria Recycling

IHK Ltd.

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European Automotive Company Requirements

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The Extended Enterprise Supply Chain







Raw Material





Maximized value at minimized cost

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Supply Chain Example


Communication Flow


Great Cars

(Tier 1)




(Tier 2)




Material Flow

(On-Time Delivery)

(Tier 3)

Mac Steel

Northstar Steel


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Enablers of the Extended Enterprise

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Reasons for Global Purchasing

  • Flexibility and Agility

  • Asset Reduction

  • Single Point of Contact

  • Total Cost Reductions

  • Visibility

  • Systems Capabilities

  • Improved Service

  • Process Change

  • Collaboration

  • Delayed Capital Expense

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What are some supply chain priorities?

  • Consistency

  • Reliability

  • Relationship

  • Technological capability

  • Flexibility

  • Price

  • Service

  • Finances

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Potential Problem

  • Cultural Issues

  • Long Lead Times

  • Additional Inventories

  • Lower Quality

  • Social and Labor Problems

  • Higher costs of doing business

  • High Opacity

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General Supplier Requirements to overcome problems

Country Requirements

Company Requirements

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Volvo General Supplier Requirements


Zero Defect Attitude, aim for QS9000 / TS 16949 / AS 9100, TQM Philosophy,

Attend to Field Problems, PPM Agreement and compliance


Prototype production in-house, Drawings and Service Manuals for Parts

Process Assessment


100% Delivery Precision, Approved Packaging

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Volvo General Supplier Requirements


Meet the Payment Terms; Fulfill the Cost Requirements; Responsibility for

Warranty Cost, Quality, & Productivity Improvements; Cost Transparency


Plan for ISO 14001 / EMAS, Compliance with Prohibitive Material List


Approved level in Supply Chain Management as preferred customer,

Communication in whole chain

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Volkswagen AG General Supplier Requirements

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General Supplier Requirements to overcome problems

More Specific






ISO/TS 16949


ISO 9001

More Generic

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Key trends and drivers for the supplier industry

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Strategic and operational guidelines to master the challenges

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Decisions and responsibilities

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Trend in outsourcing

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Relevance of Management System

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International Standards

What is a Management System?

System to establish policy and objectives and to achieve those objectives.

A management system of an organization may include different management systems such as quality management system, a financial management system, or an environmental management system

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Management System Standards

ISO 9001

ISO 14001

ISO 17799

ISO/TS 16949

SA 8000

TL 9000


ISO 22000

ISO 17025

ISO 13485

OHSAS 18001

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Management System Standards

  • ISO 9001:2000 - Quality Management Systems

  • ISO/TS 16949 - QMS for the Automotive Industry

  • ISO 13485:2003 - QMS for medical device suppliers that addresses most of the legal requirements.

  • TL 9000 - QMS for the telecommunications industry

  • AS 9100 - Quality Systems Aerospace Model for Quality Assurance in Design, Development, Production, Installation and Servicing

  • ISO 14001 - Environmental Management System

  • OHSAS 18001 - Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems

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Management System Standards

  • ISO 22000 - Food Safety Management System

  • SA 8000 - Standard for Social Accountability in the workplace

  • CMMI - Capability Maturity Model Integrated (Software Process


  • ISO 17799 - Information Security Management Systems

  • ISO 17025 - Competence of testing & calibration laboratories

  • ISO 17024:2003 - Establishes an International benchmark for organizations

    managing the certification of persons

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What is Integrated Management System?

  • The integrated approach that produces multiple business benefits.

Benefits of Management System

  • reduces your operational risks

  • raise awareness of links between your different activities

  • improves your operational performance

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Benefits of Integrated Management System



  • One-time certification

  • Lesser cost of Certification

  • Man days of Audits are reduce

  • Different areas are covered by external party for improvement

  • Better communication

  • Lesser Investment Cost

  • Less Documentation

  • Better control of the system

  • Improvement across all areas in the organization

  • Holistic approach

  • Improvement are in different areas

  • Auditing is more comprehensive

  • Process optimization can be developed through integrating the system

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Implementing Integrated Management System

  • Training

  • Records Control

  • Document Control

  • Supplier Relations

  • Audits

  • Corrective and Preventive Action

  • Management Commitment

  • Management Plans

  • Continuous Improvement

  • Supplier Relations

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Training of Trainers

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What is a Training?

Formal procedures which a company

utilizes to facilitate learning so that the

resultant behavior contributes to the

attainment of the company’s goal

& objectives.

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4 Components of Training

  • Formal Procedures – systematic & intentional process

  • Facilitate Learning – learned skills

  • Resultant Behavior – after behavior directly or indirectly

  • Attainment of Company’s Goals & Objectives – contribute to organizational effectiveness

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  • directed toward

    enhancing skill

  • any behavior that

    has been learned

  • target area of


Proficiency in Performing Tasks

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3 Broad Classes of Skills

  • Motor Skills- refer to the manipulation of the physical environment based on certain patterns of bodily movement.

  • Cognitive Skills - relate to the acquisition of mental or attitudinal factors

  • Interpersonal Skills - refer to enhancing interactions with other people

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Purpose of Training

Why Offer Training?

Your training goals should support the goals of your organization

  • overall purpose(s)

  • long range visions

  • broad

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Purpose of Training

Purpose of Training is to produce change in…

  • Skills

    • how to

    • Steps

  • Knowledge

    • critical thinking

    • decision making

  • Attitudes

    • ethics/values

    • behavior

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Qualities of a Good Trainer






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Qualities of a Good Trainer

Skills required to be a Trainer

  • Subject matter expertise

  • Design

    • instructional design

    • apply learning principles

  • Material production

    • graphics, layout, media creation

    • computer experience

  • Presentation

    • voice, personality, technical expertise

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Qualities of a Good Trainer

Personal qualities to Look for in a Trainer

  • Self-confidence

  • Awareness of environment

  • Ability to build bridges—relate old to new

  • Organizational skills

  • Desire to learn

  • Ability to listen

  • Sense of humor

  • Communication & theatrical skills

  • Flexibility

  • Patience

  • Cool head & warm heart

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Qualities of a Good Trainer

Training or Teaching

  • Facilitator orExpert

  • Real-Life orTheoretical

  • Active orPassive

  • You do it orWatch Me

  • What would you do? or Here’s how to use it.

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Qualities of a Good Trainer

ANSI Z490.1-2001 Instructor Qualifications

  • Trainers shall have appropriate level of technical knowledge, skills or abilities in the subject they teach.

  • Trainers shall be competent in delivery techniques and methods appropriate to adult learning.

  • Trainers shall maintain their training skills by participating in continuing education, development programs, or experience related to their subject matter expertise & delivery skills.

  • Trainers shall apply adult learning principles appropriate to the target audience and the learning objectives.

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Qualities of a Good Trainer

Trainer as Leader

  • Be sure your lessons are well planned.

  • Have good knowledge of the subjects being taught.

  • Build your lessons on what the students already know about the subject.

  • Let the students know what you expect of them.

  • Motivate the students by telling them why need the information being presented.

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Qualities of a Good Trainer

Trainer as Leader

  • Stimulate interest by using a variety of methods and materials wherever possible.

  • Encourage student questions and discussion.

  • Provide students with feedback and evaluation on how they are doing.

  • Maintain a good appearance.

  • Show enthusiasm for teaching and for the subject matter.

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Qualities of a Good Trainer

Trainer as Classroom Manager

  • Select a “classroom” that is convenient, comfortable, and attractive.

  • Be sure all the students can see and hear.

  • See that the room is clean and orderly.

  • Check for proper temperature and ventilation.

  • Make sure the seats are properly arranged for the day's activities.

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Qualities of a Good Trainer

Trainer as Classroom Manager

  • Check all equipment to be sure it is working and in good repair.

  • Be sure all materials are in proper order and ready to use.

  • Arrange to keep distractions and outside interruptions to a minimum.

  • Plan for frequent breaks.

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The Design of Personnel Training

The seven steps of designing personnel training are:

1.Conduct training needs analysis

2. Develop training objectives

3. Review available training methods

4. Design/select training methods

5. Design training evaluation approach

6. Implement training program

7. Measure training results

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Training Process: ADDIE

  • Analysis

    • formal/informal needs assessment

    • determine goals & objectives

  • Design

    • determine the content

    • determine delivery method

  • Development

    • create the materials

  • Implement

    • deliver the content

  • Evaluation

    • results based on objectives

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Needs Assessment & Objectives

Why Need Assessment?

  • Find the gap in SKA:

    • SKA = Skills, Knowledge & Attitude

    • Gap = what they need to know – what they know

  • Determine if training is the answer

  • Determine objectives of training

    • What should they do better to improve job performance or service to the public?

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Needs Assessment & Objectives

3 Types of Training Needs Analysis







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Needs Assessment & Objectives

Organization Analysis

  • determining where training emphasis can & should be made within the organization

  • study of the entire organization - objectives, resources, allocation of resources

  • personnel audit for manpower planning

  • indicators of organizational effectiveness

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Needs Assessment & Objectives


of Tasks

Standards of


Operation Analysis

Determination of the behavior

required of an employee

in order to perform tasks

Determination of how each

task is to be Performed

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Needs Assessment & Objectives

Person Analysis


a) whether the individual needs training

b) what training he or she needs


  • a large portion of person analysis involved diagnosis.

  • to know not only how well people are performing but why they are performing at that level.

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Needs Assessment & Objectives

Tools for Person Analysis

1.Subjective Evaluation

e.g. Performance appraisals

2. Objective Records

e.g. Job performance vs. Job standards

3. Diagnostic Achievement Test

e.g. Used to determine whether the employee

has the knowledge necessary to perform the

assigned tasks.

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Needs Assessment & Objectives

Why Determine Training Needs?

  • To eliminate the grave risk of engaging in non-essential activities to the neglect of what are essential.

  • Training needs determination pinpoints objectives essential in evaluating training

  • programs.

  • 3. A careful analysis of needs reveals the employees or groups of employees for whom training is required.

  • 4. Provides a sound basis on which to set the

  • objectives of training.

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Needs Assessment & Objectives

Steps in Determining Training Needs

1. Determine Objectives

2. Identify data needed

3. Design data-gathering instrument

4. Gather data

5. Analyze & verify data

6. Set training priorities

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Needs Assessment & Objectives

Assessment Methods

  • Informal

    • observation

    • pre-class surveys

    • group discussions

  • Formal

    • interviews

    • task analysis

    • focus groups

    • surveys

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Needs Assessment & Objectives

Needs Assessment Tips

  • Choose a subgroup if unable to survey all

  • Contact those most relevant to the training first

    • be careful not to bias input

  • Focus on participant outcomes after training

  • Do mini needs assessment before each training

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Needs Assessment & Objectives

Objectives (SMART)

  • Specific

    • state desired results in detail

  • Measurable (observable)

    • use verbs that describe what trainees will learn

  • Action

    • describe an action that the trainee will perform

  • Realistic

    • achievable

  • Time frame

    • how long will it take the trainees to learn the skill

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How Training Needs Arise




  • Employee concerns

  • Internal promotions or transfers

  • New procedures or systems

  • New standards

  • New relationships

  • Change of curriculum

  • Downsizing

  • Retirements

  • Increased work load

  • Management changes

  • Changed ownership

  • Employees Concerns

  • Incident/Accident

  • Increasing grievance or discipline

  • High staff turnover

  • Poor quality ratings

  • High or increasing rates of sickness or absence

  • Disputes

  • Low levels of motivation

  • Cases of harassment

  • Missed deadlines

  • New legislation

  • Changes to legislation

  • Competitor activity

  • Professional body regulations and requirements

  • QA codes of practice

  • Funding Council requirements

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Designing & Developing Training Materials

Considerations to be taken when contemplating on a Training Program

  • 1.The specific goals to be met as a result

  • - contributions of training to organizational goals:

  • reduction of labor costs

  • reduction of materials & supplies costs

  • reduction of managing personnel activities’ costs

  • reduction of costs of efficiently servicing customers by improving the flow of goods or services from the Company to the customer

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Designing & Developing Training Materials

Considerations to be taken when contemplating on a Training Program

  • 2.Cost Effectiveness

  • refers to the amount of money spent to attain organizational goals versus that spent on other activities in pursuit of those same goals.

  • within the area of personnel training, an organization has to decide if the goal of increased productivity could most economically be reached by training employees to be more productive, by redesigning the task so that it is easier to perform, or by automating it.

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Designing & Developing Training Materials

  • 3. Employee benefits from training:

  • Provides adequate opportunity to learn the job’s duties & responsibilities

  • Gives employees a chance to be successful at work & helps them avoid the psychological problems of failure or incompetence.

  • Trained employees can earn more

  • Trained employees are more marketable for higher level jobs. Promotions are usually given to those who perform their current jobs the best.

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Designing & Developing Training Materials

Conditions to Effective Training

  • Training must be viewed as a means to an end rather than an end itself.

  • Management must be responsible for training.

  • 3. Management must have the knowledge & skill to develop & implement personnel training.

  • 4. The general climate of an organization should be one that favors personnel training.

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Designing & Developing Training Materials


structure the organization so that the personnel training will have some

meaning for employees.


The ROLE OF MANAGEMENT is to have a

consistent theme towards training effectiveness

because personnel training can enhance the quality of its employees.

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Designing & Developing Training Materials

Consideration for Teaching Adults

  • Are they READY

    • sufficient skills

    • see a need to learn

  • How will it effect their daily job life

    • personal benefits

  • Practical practice

    • hands-on exercises, real-life scenarios

  • Knowledge sharing/Participation

    • ask questions

    • encourage discussion

  • Relate training to something they know

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    “Cone of Experience” People generally remember:

    10% of what they read

    20% of what they hear

    30% of what they see

    50% of what they hear and see



    Hear Words

    Watch still picture




    Do a site visit

    70% of what they say or write

    90% of what they say as they do a thing

    Do adramaticpresentation

    Simulate a real experience

    Do the real thing

    Adapted from Wiman & Meirhenry, .Educational Media, 1960 on Edgar Dale

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    Designing & Developing Training Materials

    Design Starts from your Objectives

    • Brainstorm the topic

    • Eliminate what isn’t necessary to match your needs assessment and objectives

      • what they already know

      • more than they need to know now

    • Consider limitations due to

      • facilities

      • length of training

      • delivery method

      • how quickly the training needs to happen

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    Designing & Developing Training Materials

    Options for Sequencing Materials

    • Storyboard

    • Outline

    • PowerPoint

    • Index cards

    • Sticky notes

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    Designing & Developing Training Materials

    Organizing the Presentation

    • Set the stage

      • introductions (you & them)

      • agenda, breaks, bathrooms

      • get “buy-in” by telling them what and why

    • Content

      • logically organize the main points (in chunks)

      • add sub-points to each chunk

      • include Visual Aids, Exercises, Handouts

    • End

      • summary

      • questions

      • other learning opportunities

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    Designing & Developing Training Materials

    For Every Chunk

    • Tell them what you are going to teach and why they care

      • big picture/overview

      • how it fits into their work life with examples

    • Teach them

      • show them how

      • do an exercise

      • ask/receive questions

    • Get them to personalize, by having them:

      • say how they will use it

      • consider pros, cons and barriers

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    Designing & Developing Training Materials

    How much details is needed?

    • It depends!

    • Does the audience need to:

      • have an idea of how to do it?

      • be able to do it?

      • be able to think about it independently?

      • come up with creative solutions

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    Designing & Developing Training Materials

    Methods of Delivering Training

    • Instructor-led

      • One-on-one

      • Group

      • Lecture

    • Self-paced

      • Distance-Ed

      • Web tutorial

      • CD-ROM

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    Designing & Developing Training Materials

    When to Create Visual Aids

    • To show process or steps

    • To show change over time

    • Complex point to be made

    • Make something stand out

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    Designing & Developing Training Materials

    Types of Visual Aids

    • Videos/Audios/Slides

    • Cheat sheets/Handouts

    • Charts, graphs, diagrams

    • Flip charts

    • Posters/Illustrations

    • Models

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    Designing & Developing Training Materials

    Design Guidelines for Visual Aids

    • Easy to see

    • Easy to navigate

    • Quick to scan

    • Accurate

    • Relevant

    • Clear

    • Complete (in relation to task)

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    Designing & Developing Training Materials

    It’s OK to have Fun

    • Humor

    • Games

      • training tool

    • Icebreakers

      • introductions

      • questions

    • Music

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    Methods & Techniques of Training

    • On-Site Training Methods

    • On-the-Job Training - oldest & most common

    • Vestibule Training - instruction found in production work

    • Job Rotation - workers rotate through a variety of job

    • Apprentice Training - common in skilled trades

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    Methods & Techniques of Training

    • Off-site training methods

    • Lecture Method

    • Audio-Visual Material

    • Conferences

    • Programmed Instruction

    • Computer-Assisted Instruction

    • Simulation

    • Role Playing

    • Sensitivity Training

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    Rehearsing & Revising

    • Two purposes of rehearsing

      • logical order & transitions

      • timing

    • Revise

      • learn from the rehearsal

      • make modifications in:

        • chunks & logical order

        • transition statements

        • timing

        • opportunities for interaction

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    Delivery Tips

    • Make no assumptions

      • jargon

      • ask don’t tell

    • Ask questions you really want an answer to

    • Vocal variety

    • Non-verbals affect communication

      • tone

      • appearance appropriate for audience

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    Managing Fear

    • Be prepared

      • know your presentation

      • rehearse

    • Calm yourself

      • isometrics

      • deep breathing

    • Turn your nervousness into energy

    You don’t have to know everything. Adults like to share what they know

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    General Principles for Conference Leadership

    • Let the group have the freedom to express their own thinking & not be dominated by the conference leader.

    • Allow participants to express their thoughts fully.

    • Refrain from passing judgment on any contribution given by an individual - let the group decide whether he is right or wrong.

    • Allow the group freedom of expression while maintaining overall control of the discussion subject.

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    General Principles for Conference Leadership

    • State the basis of the discussion so that all participants may follow.

    • Be Cooperative

    • Allow individuals to retain their self-respect in the eyes of the group

    • Remain impartial.

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    General Principles for Conference Leadership

    • Control the discussion by asking questions

    • Be Precise and to the Point

    • Keep Humor to an acceptance level

    • Refrain from suggesting yourself as an authority or expert.

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    General Principles for Conference Leadership

    • Keep discussion moving

    • Bring the group quickly to accept matters of fact. Keep to the schedule set for the program.

    • Be Sincere

    • Master the use of questions

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    2 Basic Attitudes to be an effective trainer

    POSITIVE Attitude

    (Optimism, Project good faith,

    Belief in the goodness of other

    people, Trust in situation)



    Slide95 l.jpg


    In addition to those qualities & attitudes, the

    trainer should take pains in developing himself in

    the following areas:

    • Listening

    • Empathy

    • Self-expression

    • Accept mistakes & criticisms

    • Emotional control

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    Factors Involved in Faulty TRANSMISSION

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    Factors Involved in Faulty RECEPTION

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    13 Actions Toward Effective Communication

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    Training Evaluation


    • Evaluate based on objectives

    • Did the participants:

      • learn what you had planned?

      • implement what they learned?

      • improve their job performance or service to the public?

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    Training Evaluation

    Evaluation of Training Programs

    Reactive (reactions)

    Learning (exams)


    Behavioral (changes)

    Results (value)


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    “It’s always helpful to learn from your mistakes because then your mistakes are worthwhile”Garry Marshall

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    “The better the training goes, the less chance there is that anyone will appreciate the effort that went into it.”Chuck Hodell

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    OHSAS 18001

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    “The first duty of business is to survive and the guiding principle of business economics is not the maximization of profit but the avoidance of loss.”

    Peter DruckerManagement Consultant

    Good Business

    Safety health competitiveness l.jpg


    Safety, health & competitiveness

    • Competitiveness, as it relates to an organization, is the ability to consistently succeed in the marketplace.

    • In order to survive & prosper, organizations, need as many competitive advantage as possible.

    • Peak performance organization are learning that a safe and healthful work environment gives them a doubly effective competitive advantage.

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    Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs


    Self-development and realization

    Self esteem, recognition, status


    Sense of belonging, love


    Security, protection


    Hunger, thirst


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    Cost of Accidents Iceberg

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    ILO Guidelines and links to National and Tailored Guidelines

    ILO Guidelines












    on OSH




    guidelines on




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    International Labour Organisation.







    Legislation and

    enforcement policy




    Organizations Health &

    Safety Mgmt Systems


    The role of the ILO in OHS

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    The Process Based Approach.

    • The new approach to “standards”;

    • All new standards are no longer based upon the attainment of a prescribed level of performance but on the process based approach of continuous improvement.

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    Continual Improvement

    Process of enhancing the OH&S Management System, to achieve improvements in overall occupational health and safety performance in line with the organisations policy.

    (OHSAS 18001)

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    The Management Systems Approach in the workplace

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    Factors affecting Safety Management System

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    OHS management system in the organization

    Main elements

    • Policy

    • Organizing

    • Planning and implementation

    • Evaluation

    • Action for improvement

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    Introduction to OHSAS 18001

    OHSAS 18001

    • Agreed by major certification bodies.

    • International credibility and development.

    • A standards based approach

    • Benchmarking opportunity

    • Aligns with other standards - integration

    • Not an ISO standard.

    • Commercially based activity

    • Auditor Competence not defined

    • Development of the global ILO guideline

    • Application to same sized undertakings

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    Introduction to OHSAS 18001

    Broad Intentions of OHSMS

    • Provide a guideline how OHS

      should be integrated in other

      business performance

    • How to minimize enterprise’s work

    • How organization is managed as a whole

    • Comprehensive improvement in OHS for a firm

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    Introduction to OHSAS 18001

    Development of OHSAS 18001

    BS 1880

    offers guidance in implementing OH&S management system

    OH Safety Assessment Series (OHSAS) Specification 18001

    Specification for the certification

    OH Safety Assessment Series (OHSAS) Specification 18002

    Guidelines for the implementation of OHSAS 18001

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    Introduction to OHSAS 18001

    OHSAS 18001

    Developed in response to urgent customer demand for a recognizable Occupational health and safety management system standard.

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    Introduction to OHSAS 18001

    OHSAS gives requirements for an occupational health and safety (OH&S) management system, to control its OH&S risks and improve its performance in an organization.


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    Introduction to OHSAS 18001

    OHSAS specification is applicable to any organization wishes to:

    • OH&S management system is to eliminate risk to employees and other interested parties.

    • Implement, maintain and continually improve an OH&S management system;

    • Assure itself of its conformance with its stated OH&S policy;

    • Demonstrate such conformance with others;

    • Certification/registration of its OH&S management system by an external organization; or

    • Make a self determination and declaration of conformance with this OHSAS specification.

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    Introduction to OHSAS 18001

    Reference Publications

    • It is advisable that the latest editions of such publications are consulted.

    • OHSAS 18002:1999 Guidelines for implementation of OHSAS 18001

    • BS 8800:1996 Guide to occupational health and safety management systems.

    • OHSAS 18001:1999 Occupational health and safety management systems-specification.

    • ISO 19011:2002 Guidelines for Quality and/or Environmental Management systems auditing

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    OHSAS 18001 Elements

    • OH&S Management System Elements

      • 4.1 General Requirements

      • 4.2 OH&S Policy

      • 4.3 Planning

      • 4.4 Implementation and Operation

      • 4.5 Checking and Corrective Action

      • 4.6 Management Review

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    OHSAS 18001 Elements

    4.1 General Requirements

    • The organization should establish and maintain Management System that complies with all the requirements of OHSAS 18001.

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    OHSAS 18001 Elements

    4.2 OH&S Policy

    The OH&S Policy Should be:

    • appropriate to the nature and scale of the organization’s OH&S, risks

    • commitment to continual improvement

    • commitment to comply with current applicable OH&S legislation and other requirements

    • documented, implemented and maintained

    • communicated to all employees

    • available to interested parties

    • reviewed periodically

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    OHSAS 18001 Elements

    4.3 Planning

    • 4.3.1 Planning for hazard identification, risk assessment and risk control

    • 4.3.2 Legal and other Requirements

    • 4.3.3 Objectives

    • 4.3.4 OH&S management programme(s)

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    OHSAS 18001 Elements

    4.3.1 Planning for hazard identification, risk assessment and risk control

    The organization shall establish the ongoing identification of hazards, the assessment of risks and the implementation of necessary control measures.

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    OHSAS 18001 Elements

    Hazard identification, risk assessment and risk control process

    • Risk-based approach:

    • identification of hazard

    • evaluation of risk

    • decision on the tolerability of residual risk

    • identification of additional control measures

    • evaluate the reduction of risk to tolerable level

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    OHSAS 18001 Elements

    Review of hazard identification, risk assessment and risk controls

    • Review may vary depending on:

      • the nature of hazard

      • the magnitude of the risk

      • changes from normal operation

    • Such changes may include:

      • expansion, contraction, restructuring

      • reapportioning of responsibilities

      • changes to methods of working or patterns of behavior

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    OHSAS 18001 Elements

    4.3.2 Legal and Other Requirements

    • The intent of this requirement is to allow the organization to understand how its activities are or will be affected by applicable legal and other requirements.

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    OHSAS 18001 Elements

    4.3.3 Objectives

    • The intent of this requirements is to show that, throughout the organization, measurable objectives are established to enable the OH&S policy to be achieved.

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    OHSAS 18001 Elements

    4.3.4 OH&S Management Programmes

    • The intent of this requirements is to produce a documented strategy on how to deliver the organization’s OH&S objectives and ensure that they are reviewed and updated as needed.

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    OHSAS 18001 Elements

    Objectives & Targets

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    OHSAS 18001 Elements

    4.4 Implementation & Planning

    4.4.1 Structure and responsibility

    4.4.2 Training, awareness and competence

    4.4.3 Consultation and communication

    4.4.4 Documentation

    4.4.5 Document and Data Control

    4.4.6 Operational Control

    4.4.7 Emergency Preparedness and Response

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    OHSAS 18001 Elements

    4.4.1 Structure and Responsibility

    • To facilitate effective OH&S management it is necessary that roles, responsibilities and authorities are defined, documented and communicated, and that adequate resources are provided to enable OH&S tasks to be performed.

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    OHSAS 18001 Elements

    4.4.2 Training, awareness and competence

    • The organization should encourage participation in, and support for, OH&S, from all those affected by its operations, by a process of consultation and communication.

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    OHSAS 18001 Elements

    4.4.3 Consultation & Communication

    • The organization should encourage participation in, and support for, OH&S, from all those affected by its operations, by a process of consultation and communication.

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    4.4.4 Documentation


    OHSAS 18001 Elements

    4.4.4 Documentation

    The organization should develop documentation to the minimum required for effectiveness and efficiency, in paper or electronic form to:

    • describe the core elements of the OH&S management system and their interaction;

    • provide direction to the related documentation.



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    OHSAS 18001 Elements

    4.4.5. Document & Data Control

    • All documents and data containing information critical to OH&S should be identified and controlled.

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    OHSAS 18001 Elements

    4.4.6 Operational Control

    • The organization shall establish and maintain arrangements to ensure the effective application of control and counter measures, whenever these are required to control operational risks, and fulfill the OH&S policy and objectives.

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    OHSAS 18001 Elements

    4.4.7 Emergency Preparedness and Response

    • The organization should plan and prepare for foreseeable accident, incident and emergency situations, in order to maximize the effectiveness of its response provisions.

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    OHSAS 18001 Elements

    4.5.1 Performance measurement and monitoring

    4.5.2 Accidents, incident, non-conformance

    4.5.3 Records and Records Management

    4.5.4 Audit

    4.5 Checking & Corrective Action

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    OHSAS 18001 Elements

    4.5.1 Performance Measurement & Monitoring

    • The organization shall establish and maintain procedures to monitor and measure OH&S performance on a regular basis.

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    OHSAS 18001 Elements

    4.5.2 Accidents, incidents, non-conformances and corrective and preventive action.

    • The organization shall establish and maintain procedures for defining responsibility and authority for:

      • the handling and investigation of accidents, incidents, non-conformances

      • taking action to mitigate any consequences arising from accidents, incidents or non-conformances

      • the initiation and completion of corrective and preventive actions

      • confirmation of the effectiveness of corrective and preventive actions taken

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    OHSAS 18001 Elements

    4.5.3 Records and Records Management

    • It should demonstrate that the OH&S management system operates effectively, And the processes have been carried out under safe conditions. Safety records that document the management system and conformance to the requirements should be prepared, maintained, legible, and adequately identified.

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    OHSAS 18001 Elements

    4.5.4 Audit

    • The organization shall establish and maintain an audit program and procedures for periodic OH&S management system audits to be carried out.

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    OHSAS 18001 Elements

    4.6 Management Review

    • Top management should review the operation of the OH&S management system to assess whether it is being fully implemented and remains suitable for achieving the organization’s stated OH&S objectives and policy.

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    ... the decision is now in our hands !

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    What is “The Environment”?

    • “Everything, including me”

    • Planet Earth


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    Natural Systems

    • Good at adapting

    • Tend to be cyclic

    • Have limited resources & “carrying capacity”

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    Carrying Capacity









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    Product Life Cycle

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    Environmental Issues for Business

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    Introduction to EMS

    The fears of the population are multifarious:

    - ozone hole / climate- radioactivity

    - killing of forest- poison in food

    - pollution of water- pollution of air

    - emission of cars- growing waste problem

    - poisoned ground

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    Introduction to EMS



    of EMS

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    Introduction to EMS

    ISO 14001:1996

    • Voluntary standard

    • Minimum requirement

      • Compliance with Environmental Laws

      • Commitment to Continuous Improvement

    • No absolute requirements

    • Use for safety aspects in the future

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    Introduction to EMS

    ISO 14001:1996

    • Intentions of this International Standard

    • Assistance for organizations to achieve environmental and economic goals.

    • The overall aim of the standard is to support environmental protection and prevention of pollution in balance with socio-economic needs.

    • Issues with strategic and competitive implications are considered in this standard.

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    Introduction to EMS

    Field and Scope of Application

    • any organization

    • incorporated or not

    • public or private

    • has functions and administration

    • worldwide range of validity

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    Introduction to EMS

    Definiton of an EMS

    A continual cycle of





    the actions that an organization

    takes to meet its environmental obligations.

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    Introduction to EMS

    Definiton of an EMS

    • Built on TQM Model by Shewart & Deming


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    Introduction to EMS

    Continuous Improvement

    • Requirement of ISO14001

    • Similar to Total Quality Management

    • “Kaizen”is Japanese version

    • Measurement basis

    • Track progress and Feedback Success

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    Introduction to EMS


    • Improved environmental performance

    • Improved compliance

    • Increased efficiency / reduced cost

    • New customers / markets

    • Enhanced employee morale

    • Enhanced image with public

    • Enhanced image with regulators

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    The ISO 14001 Cycle





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    EMS Model

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    4.2 Environmental Policy

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    4.3.1 Environmental Aspect


    Activities, products,


    4.3.2 Legal and other


    4.3.4 Environmental



    4.3.3 Objectives

    And targets

    4.3 Planning

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    Identifying Environmental Aspects

    • GUIDE :

    • Emission to air

    • Releases to water

    • Waste Management

    • Contamination of Land

    • Impact on Communities

    • Use of raw materials and natural resources

    • Other Local environmental issues

      • Noise

      • Visual Impact

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    Objectives & Targets




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    Objectives & Targets

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    4.4.7 Emergency Prep.

    & Response

    4.4.1 Structure &


    4.4.2 Training,


    & Competence

    4.4.6 Operational




    4.4.5 Document

    4.4.4 Documentation

    4.4 Implementation & Operation

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    EMS Structure & Responsibility

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    4.5 Checking & Corrective Action

    4.5.4 Audit

    4.5.1 Monitoring &


    4.5.3 Records

    4.5.2 Non-Conform. &

    Corr./ Prev.


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    4.6 Management Review

    The management review shall address the possible need for changes to policy, objectives and other elements of the EMS in the light of OH&S management system audit results, changing circumstances and the commitment to continual improvement.

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    4.6 Management Review

    • Management reviews should include:

    • results from audits

    • the extent to which objectives have been met

    • the continuing suitability of the EMS in relation to changing conditions & information

    • concerns amongst relevant interested parties

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    Staff/Employee Time

    Training of Personnel

    Possible Consulting



    Cost of Certification

    Cost of EMS

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    What Environment Teams Really Do?

    • Manage Information

      • Keep an “Ideas Pot”

      • Gather Best Practice from outside

    • Understand the business & its Effects

    • Run Employee Involvement Programmes

    • Demonstrate & Encourage Leadership

    • Set up Purchasing, Use & Disposal Programmes

    • Measure & request Measurements

    • Set Targets & Plan to meet them

    • Report both internally & externally

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    The Essence of Successful Environmental Management

    Environmental literacy

    Understanding impacts

    Senior management leadership

    Environmental manager

    Integration with management system

    Using less and buying better

    Measurable benefits


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