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Distance Education Farhad Saba, Ph. D. Professor Educational Technology [email protected] http://distance-educator.com How New, How Old! 1880’s Chautauqua, NY Correspondence Education Educational Radio (1920-1940) Educational Television (1940-present) Cable (1970-present)

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distance education

Distance Education

Farhad Saba, Ph. D.

Professor

Educational Technology

[email protected]

http://distance-educator.com

how new how old
How New, How Old!
  • 1880’s Chautauqua, NY
    • Correspondence Education
  • Educational Radio (1920-1940)
  • Educational Television (1940-present)
    • Cable (1970-present)
    • Satellite (1980-present)
  • Internet (1990-present)

Distance Education

definitions
Definitions
  • Geographic separation of the learner and the teacher
  • Large lecture halls?

Distance Education

transactional distance
Transactional Distance
  • Quality of communication
    • Student-Instructor
    • Student-student

Distance Education

why distance education
Why Distance Education?
  • Increasing cost
  • Increasing time-to-degree
  • Increasing debt

Distance Education

modern era
Modern Era
  • Standardization
  • One size fits all system of education
  • Performing uniformed tasks

Distance Education

post modern
Post-Modern
  • Individualization
    • Personal differences
  • Differential personalized learning
  • Critical thinking
  • Problem solving

Distance Education

who are our students
Who Are Our Students?
  • Largest generation (36% of total population).
  • 31% are minorities; more diverse than the adult population.
  • Have come of age along with the Internet.
  • Information has been universally available to them.
  • Community is a digital place of common interest, not just a shared physical space.

Distance Education

education beliefs
Education Beliefs
  • 96% say doing well in school is important in their lives.
  • 88% of students report that attending college is critical or very important to future success.
  • 76% of students would like to learn more about the world.
  • 28% of high school students use a foreign news source to learn about current events.

Distance Education

internet use by age
Internet Use by Age

Distance Education

even young children
Even Young Children
  • 72% of all first graders used a home computer during the summer on a weekly basis.
  • Over 85% of young children with home computers used them for educational purposes.
  • By 1999, 97% of kindergartners had access to a computer at school or home.
  • 35% of children ages 2-5 use the Internet.

Distance Education

online teens
Online Teens
  • 71% of online teens say they relied mostly on Internet sources for the last big project they did for school.
  • 48% say their use of the Internet improves their relationship with friends.
  • 94% of online teens report using the Internet for school-related research.
  • 74% of online teens use instant messaging.
  • 24% of online teens have created their own Web pages.

Distance Education

virtual schools
Virtual Schools
  • 40,000 to 50,000 Students in 1999-2000 (Clark 2000)
  • Virtual High School (VHS) (http://vhs.concord.or)
  • Florida Virtual School (FLVS) (http://www.flvs.net/)
  • Electronic classroom of Tomorrow (ECOT) (http://www.ecotohio.org/)

Distance Education

corporate universities
Corporate Universities
  • Expenditure on Web-based training was estimated to be $5.5 billion in 2002. (Berge, 2001).
    • The Thomson Corporation provides innovative online learning to as many as 86,000 GM salaried employees through General Motors University
    • Ford has 20,000 online students in one of its programs

Distance Education

government 1
Government (1)
  • U. S. Armed Services
    • TRADOC
  • The U. S. Navy Video TeleTraining (VTT)
  • The Air Force Institute for Advanced Distributed Learning (AFIADL)
  • Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL)
    • SCORM (http://adlnet.org)
  • The Defense Activity for Non-Tradition Education Support (DANTES)

Distance Education

government 2
Government (2)
  • eGovernment initiative (eTraining)
    • Gov Online Learning Center (http://www.golearn.gov)
  • Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
    • The Emergency Education NETwork (EENET)
  • FBI Virtual Academy
  • Departments of Education, Labor and Agriculture

Distance Education

government 3
Government (3)
  • State Human Resource Development Programs
  • Law Enforcement
  • Municipal, water and power agencies

Distance Education

growth of distance education
Growth of Distance Education

100

90

79

80

72

70

62

58

60

50

44

40

33

30

22

20

12

10

0

All Institutions

Private 4-year

Public 2-year

Public 4-year

Fall 1995

1997-98

Source: U. S. Department of Education

Distance Education

total number of students
Total Number of Students
  • 1995 754,000
  • 1997-98 1.6 Million
  • 2001 3 Million
  • Current Estimate6 Million

(U. S. Department of Education)

Distance Education

baby boom echo growth in general student population
“Baby Boom Echo” Growth in General Student Population
  • 1997-2007 21%
  • 2007-2011 17%

Distance Education

faculty involvement
Faculty Involvement

35

30

25

20

Innovators

Early Adopters

Early Majority

Late Majority

Laggards

15

10

5

16%

34%

13.5%

34 %

2.5%

0

Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovation model

Distance Education

faculty involvement22
Faculty Involvement

35

30

25

20

Innovators

Early Adopters

Early Majority

Late Majority

Laggards

15

10

5

16%

34%

13.5%

34 %

2.5%

0

Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovation model

Distance Education

investment in technology
Investment in Technology
  • National
    • The Internet
    • Super Computers
    • Internte2
  • Local
    • Fiber and Phone Lines
    • Servers
    • PCs

Distance Education

level of investment
Level of Investment
  • Millions
  • Billions
  • Trillions

Distance Education

industrial age
Industrial Age

Standard Goods and Services On size fits all

Distance Education

post industrial society
Post-Industrial Society

Distance Education

post industrial society27
Post-Industrial Society
  • Critical thinking
  • Decision making
  • Problem solving

Distance Education

differences
Differences
  • 150 Miles/hr
  • 2000 passenger/run
  • Safe & Comfortable
  • 50 Miles/hr
  • 200 passenger/run
  • Unsafe & Uncomfortable

Distance Education

feedback loops positive
Feedback Loops: Positive

Knowledge

Learning

Distance Education

feedback loops negative
Feedback Loops: Negative

Room Temperature

Heater

Distance Education

transactional distance31
Transactional Distance

Independence

structure

Distance Education

distance in education
Distance in education…
  • …depends on individual differences

Distance Education

individual differences
Individual differences
  • Prior-Learning
    • Differential progress
  • Course Structure
    • Mini Courses
    • Micro courses
    • Learning Objects

Distance Education

structural issues
Structural Issues
  • Flexible organization (Time to establish a new course)
  • Flexible Process (Time to degree)

Distance Education

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