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Distance Education Farhad Saba, Ph. D. Professor Educational Technology [email protected] http://distance-educator.com How New, How Old! 1880’s Chautauqua, NY Correspondence Education Educational Radio (1920-1940) Educational Television (1940-present) Cable (1970-present)

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Distance education l.jpg

Distance Education

Farhad Saba, Ph. D.

Professor

Educational Technology

[email protected]

http://distance-educator.com


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How New, How Old!

  • 1880’s Chautauqua, NY

    • Correspondence Education

  • Educational Radio (1920-1940)

  • Educational Television (1940-present)

    • Cable (1970-present)

    • Satellite (1980-present)

  • Internet (1990-present)

Distance Education


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Definitions

  • Geographic separation of the learner and the teacher

  • Large lecture halls?

Distance Education


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Transactional Distance

  • Quality of communication

    • Student-Instructor

    • Student-student

Distance Education


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Why Distance Education?

  • Increasing cost

  • Increasing time-to-degree

  • Increasing debt

Distance Education


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Modern Era

  • Standardization

  • One size fits all system of education

  • Performing uniformed tasks

Distance Education


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Post-Modern

  • Individualization

    • Personal differences

  • Differential personalized learning

  • Critical thinking

  • Problem solving

Distance Education


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Who Are Our Students?

  • Largest generation (36% of total population).

  • 31% are minorities; more diverse than the adult population.

  • Have come of age along with the Internet.

  • Information has been universally available to them.

  • Community is a digital place of common interest, not just a shared physical space.

Distance Education


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Education Beliefs

  • 96% say doing well in school is important in their lives.

  • 88% of students report that attending college is critical or very important to future success.

  • 76% of students would like to learn more about the world.

  • 28% of high school students use a foreign news source to learn about current events.

Distance Education


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Internet Use by Age

Distance Education


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Even Young Children

  • 72% of all first graders used a home computer during the summer on a weekly basis.

  • Over 85% of young children with home computers used them for educational purposes.

  • By 1999, 97% of kindergartners had access to a computer at school or home.

  • 35% of children ages 2-5 use the Internet.

Distance Education


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Online Teens

  • 71% of online teens say they relied mostly on Internet sources for the last big project they did for school.

  • 48% say their use of the Internet improves their relationship with friends.

  • 94% of online teens report using the Internet for school-related research.

  • 74% of online teens use instant messaging.

  • 24% of online teens have created their own Web pages.

Distance Education


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Virtual Schools

  • 40,000 to 50,000 Students in 1999-2000 (Clark 2000)

  • Virtual High School (VHS) (http://vhs.concord.or)

  • Florida Virtual School (FLVS) (http://www.flvs.net/)

  • Electronic classroom of Tomorrow (ECOT) (http://www.ecotohio.org/)

Distance Education


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Corporate Universities

  • Expenditure on Web-based training was estimated to be $5.5 billion in 2002. (Berge, 2001).

    • The Thomson Corporation provides innovative online learning to as many as 86,000 GM salaried employees through General Motors University

    • Ford has 20,000 online students in one of its programs

Distance Education


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Government (1)

  • U. S. Armed Services

    • TRADOC

  • The U. S. Navy Video TeleTraining (VTT)

  • The Air Force Institute for Advanced Distributed Learning (AFIADL)

  • Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL)

    • SCORM (http://adlnet.org)

  • The Defense Activity for Non-Tradition Education Support (DANTES)

Distance Education


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Government (2)

  • eGovernment initiative (eTraining)

    • Gov Online Learning Center (http://www.golearn.gov)

  • Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)

    • The Emergency Education NETwork (EENET)

  • FBI Virtual Academy

  • Departments of Education, Labor and Agriculture

Distance Education


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Government (3)

  • State Human Resource Development Programs

  • Law Enforcement

  • Municipal, water and power agencies

Distance Education


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Growth of Distance Education

100

90

79

80

72

70

62

58

60

50

44

40

33

30

22

20

12

10

0

All Institutions

Private 4-year

Public 2-year

Public 4-year

Fall 1995

1997-98

Source: U. S. Department of Education

Distance Education


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Total Number of Students

  • 1995 754,000

  • 1997-98 1.6 Million

  • 2001 3 Million

  • Current Estimate6 Million

    (U. S. Department of Education)

Distance Education


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“Baby Boom Echo” Growth in General Student Population

  • 1997-2007 21%

  • 2007-2011 17%

Distance Education


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Faculty Involvement

35

30

25

20

Innovators

Early Adopters

Early Majority

Late Majority

Laggards

15

10

5

16%

34%

13.5%

34 %

2.5%

0

Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovation model

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Faculty Involvement

35

30

25

20

Innovators

Early Adopters

Early Majority

Late Majority

Laggards

15

10

5

16%

34%

13.5%

34 %

2.5%

0

Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovation model

Distance Education


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Investment in Technology

  • National

    • The Internet

    • Super Computers

    • Internte2

  • Local

    • Fiber and Phone Lines

    • Servers

    • PCs

Distance Education


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Level of Investment

  • Millions

  • Billions

  • Trillions

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Industrial Age

Standard Goods and Services On size fits all

Distance Education


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Post-Industrial Society

Distance Education


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Post-Industrial Society

  • Critical thinking

  • Decision making

  • Problem solving

Distance Education


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Differences

  • 150 Miles/hr

  • 2000 passenger/run

  • Safe & Comfortable

  • 50 Miles/hr

  • 200 passenger/run

  • Unsafe & Uncomfortable

Distance Education


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Feedback Loops: Positive

Knowledge

Learning

Distance Education


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Feedback Loops: Negative

Room Temperature

Heater

Distance Education


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Transactional Distance

Independence

structure

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Distance in education…

  • …depends on individual differences

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Individual differences

  • Prior-Learning

    • Differential progress

  • Course Structure

    • Mini Courses

    • Micro courses

    • Learning Objects

Distance Education


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Structural Issues

  • Flexible organization (Time to establish a new course)

  • Flexible Process (Time to degree)

Distance Education


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