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Dispersed Systems. FDSC400 2004 Version. Goals. Scales and Types of Structure in Food Surface Tension Curved Surfaces Surface Active Materials Charged Surfaces. COLLOIDAL SCALE. Dispersed Systems.

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dispersed systems

Dispersed Systems

FDSC400

2004 Version

goals
Goals
  • Scales and Types of Structure in Food
  • Surface Tension
  • Curved Surfaces
  • Surface Active Materials
  • Charged Surfaces
dispersed systems4
Dispersed Systems

A kinetically stable mixture of one phase in another largely immiscible phase. Usually at least one length scale is in the colloidal range.

dispersed systems5
Dispersed Systems

Dispersed phase

Continuous phase

Interface

slide6

Continuous phase

Dispersed phase

properties of dispersed systems
Properties of Dispersed Systems
  • Too small to see
  • Affected by both gravitational forces and thermal diffusion
  • Large interfacial area
    • SURFACE EFFECTS ARE IMPORTANT
slide8

Increased Surface Area

The same oil is split into 0.1 cm radius droplets, each has a volume of 0.004 cm3 and a surface area 0.125 cm2.

As we need about 5000 droplets we would have a total area of 625 cm2

We have 20 cm3 of oil in 1 cm radius droplets. Each has a volume of (4/3.p.r3) 5.5 cm3 and a surface area of (4.p.r2) 12.5 cm2.

As we need about 3.6 droplets we would have a total area of 45.5 cm2

for a fixed composition
For a Fixed COMPOSITION
  • Decrease size, increase number of particles
  • Increase AREA of interfacial contact

decrease area

tendency to break
LYOPHOBIC

Weak interfacial tension

Little to be gained by breaking

e.g., gums

LYOPHILIC

Strong interfacial tension

Strong energetic pressure to reduce area

e.g., emulsions

Tendency to break
surface tension bulk scale
Surface Tension-bulk scale-

Force, g

Slope g

Interfacial energy

Area, A

Interfacial area

surface active material
Surface Active Material
  • Types of surfactant
  • Surface accumulation
  • Surface tension lowering
types of surfactant small molecule
Types of Surfactant-small molecule-

Hydrophilic head group (charged or polar)

Hydrophobic tail (non-polar)

types of surfactant polymeric
Types of Surfactant-polymeric-

Polymer backbone

Sequence of more water soluble subunits

Sequence of less water soluble subunits

surface binding
Surface Binding

Equilibrium

ENTHALPY COST

ENTROPY COST

surface binding isotherm
Surface Binding Isotherm

Surface saturation

Surface concentration /mg m-2

No binding below a certain concentration

ln Bulk concentration

surface tension lowering
Surface Tension Lowering

Bare surface

(tension g0)

Interface partly “hidden”

(tension g)

Surface pressure – the ability of a surfactant to lower surface tension

p = g-g0

summary
Summary
  • Small particles have a large surface area
  • Surfaces have energy associated with them (i.e., they are unstable) because of their interfacial tension
  • Dispersions will tend to aggregate to reduce the interfacial area
  • Proteins and small molecule surfactants will adsorb to the surface to reduce surface tension and increase stability.
emulsion

Emulsion

A fine dispersion of one liquid in a second, largely immiscible liquid. In foods the liquids are inevitably oil and an aqueous solution.

types of emulsion
Types of Emulsion

mm

Water

Oil

Oil-in-water emulsion

Water-in-oil emulsion

chemical composition
Chemical Composition

Interfacial layer. Essential to stabilizing the emulsion

Oil Phase. Limited effects on the properties of the emulsion

Aqueous Phase. Aqueous chemical reactions affect the interface and hence emulsion stability

emulsion size
< 0.5 mm

0.5-1.5 mm

1.5-3 mm

>3 mm

Emulsion Size
slide26

Large droplets often contribute most to instability

Median

(Volume in class Total volume measured)

Polydispersity

Note log scale

volume fraction
Volume Fraction

f=Total volume of the dispersed phase

 Total volume of the system

Close packing, fmax

Monodisperse

Ideal ~0.69

Random ~0.5

Polydisperse

Much greater

emulsion viscosity

Emulsion droplets disrupt streamlines and require more effort to get the same flow rate

Emulsion Viscosity

Dispersed phase

volume fraction

Viscosity of emulsion

Continuous phase viscosity

emulsion destabilization
Emulsion Destabilization
  • Creaming
  • Flocculation
  • Coalescence
  • Combined methods
creaming
Creaming

Buoyancy

(Archimedes)

h Continuous phase viscosity

Dr density difference

g Acceleration due to gravity

ddroplet diameter

v droplet terminal velocity

vs Stokes velocity

Friction

(Stokes-Einstein)

flocculation and coalescence
Flocculation and Coalescence

Collision and

sticking (reaction)

Stir or change chemical conditions

FLOCCULATION

Rehomogenization

Film rupture

COALESCENCE

aggregation kinetics
Aggregation Kinetics
  • Droplets diffuse around and will collide often
  • In fact only a tiny proportion of collisions are reactive

DG

2P

G

kslow=kfast/W

P2

Function of energy barrier

interaction potential
Interaction Potential
  • Non-covalent attractive and repulsive forces will act to pull droplets together (increase flocculation rate) or push them apart (decrease flocculation rate)
van der waals attraction
Van der Waals Attraction
  • Always attractive
  • Very short range
electrostatic repulsion
Electrostatic Repulsion
  • Repulsive or attractive depending on sign of charges
  • Magnitude depends on magnitude of the charge
  • Gets weaker with distance but reasonably long range
steric repulsion
Steric Repulsion

Droplets approach each other

Protein layers overlap

Proteins repel each other mechanically & by osmotic dehydration

What happens when protein molecules on different droplets are reactive?

rheology of flocculated emulsions
Flocculation leads to an increase in viscosity

Water is trapped within the floc and must flow with the floc

Effective volume fraction increased

Rheology of Flocculated Emulsions

rg

gelled emulsions
Gelled Emulsions

Thin liquid

Viscous liquid

Gelled solid

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