Diagramming Arguments

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Diagramming Arguments - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Diagramming Arguments. Congruent and Linked Arguments. An Argument. An argument = a set of statements connected by a special relationship of justification; the statements provide evidence for the main claim. Independent Premises.

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Diagramming Arguments

An Argument
• An argument = a set of statements connected by a special relationship of justification; the statements provide evidence for the main claim
Independent Premises
• Falsity of one doesn’t cancel support the other provides.- independent proof.
• You shouldn’t buy a T.V. that costs over \$300. This costs \$450. It is also too big for your room. Don’t buy this T.V.
Dependent Premises
• Falsity of one can cancel support for others-interconnected.
• These premises cannot stand alone to provide proof.
Example of Dependent
• No floor with 2x4 joists on two foot centers is strong enough. This floor has 2x4 joists on two foot centers. So, this floor is not strong enough.
Convergent Arguments
• In convergent arguments, the premises provide different and independent reasons for the claim. Each can support the claim by itself.
Example-Convergent
• Nuclear power plants should not be built, because they are dangerous. And, the power from these plants is not essential. Finally, these plants are not fair to future generations.
• Linked argument- one in which the reasons are dependent on one another for their strength. They cannot stand alone.
• There is reason to think the suspect is linked to this crime. The shots were fired from a jaguar; jaguars are not usual to this area; and the suspect owns a white jaguar.
Argument Diagramming
• Identify each claim and number them.
• Provide missing parts if needed.
• Determine relation of claims and diagram.
• Arguments seek to prove a point; to establish truth of a claim on basis of other claims.
• Persuasion seeks to win others to a point of view- may or may not have proof.
Is this an argument?
• “The desperate attempt by Hawks to link Iraq to the war on terrorism is based on blatant mis-information.
• Is there evidence?
Enthymemes-assumptions
• There can be implied or missing parts of an argument. Often it is assumed that you will supply the missing information or think it automatically.
What is missing?
• Jones will not win the election since his District is Democratic.
• You should prefer this tea as do professional tea-tasters.
What is missing?
• This film is too intellectual and thus probably will not be economically successful.
• Being a barber, you are no doubt a good conversationalist.
Common Assumptions
• Alice could not have been the robber, since Alice was not in Key West when the crime was committed/ At 10 a.m., August 9, she as in Miami.
Dubious Assumptions
• The Anacin difference-two standard aspirin tablets can 650 milligrams while two Anacin tablets contain 800 milligrams.- better?