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Current and Potential Utility of Broadleaf Herbs for Sagebrush Communities Scott Walker and Nancy Shaw Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, Ephraim, UT and USDA-FS Rocky Mountain Research Station, Boise, ID. The Great Basin (From Cronquist, A., et al 1972) The Great Basin

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Current and Potential Utility of Broadleaf Herbs for Sagebrush Communities

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Current and potential utility of broadleaf herbs for sagebrush communities l.jpg

Current and Potential Utility of Broadleaf Herbs for Sagebrush Communities

Scott Walker and Nancy Shaw

Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, Ephraim, UT and

USDA-FS Rocky Mountain Research Station, Boise, ID.


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The Great Basin

(From Cronquist, A., et al 1972)


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The Great Basin


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Impacts – Principal

Livestock Grazing

Weed Invasion


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Cheatgrass Fire Cycle


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Restoration Practicality

  • Reduction of weedy competition

  • Preparation of suitable seedbeds

  • Restoration of diverse communities

  • Planting site-adapted species

  • Recovery of residual native species


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Increased Diversity of Plant Communities

* Broader range of organisms.

* Cover and soil stabilization.

* Forage availability extended.

* Improve esthetics.

*Higher quality forage.

* Supplies critical nutrients and succulence.

*Fruits, seeds, and leaves of forbs are frequently a principal food for upland game birds


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Grasses

Shrubs

Forbs

Availability & Utility of Principal Native Species


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Status of Broadleaf Forbs for Restoration

  • Large number of plant associations

  • Moderate number of species present

  • Few species occupy broad range of sites

  • Individual taxa consist of diverse ecotypes


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In the Management of Any Land Type It Is Important to Recognize All Sites Support a Particular Array of Species.

  • All plant communities have evolved to support a particular group of compatible species.

  • These species provide the most complete and effective group of plants for the particular landscape, climate, and exist over time.


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Native forbs offer unique challenges in seed collecting, handling and seeding

  • Usually hand collected

  • Wildland seed production can be highly erratic

  • Cost and availability are unpredictable

  • Seed handling guidelines have not been developed

  • Seeding requirements and cultural practices have not been developed


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Western Yarrow

Louisiana sage

Pacific aster

Blueleaf aster

Cicer milkvetch

Arrowleaf balsomroot

Crownvetch

Geranium

Utah sweetvetch

One flower helianthella

Cow Parsnip

Ligusticum

Lewis flax

Lomatium

Lupine

Alfalfa

Yellow sweetclover Sainfoin

Sweetanise

Penstemon

Small burnet

Butterweed groundsel

Canada goldenrod

Globemallow

Clover

Showy goldeneye

Principal Broadleaf Forbs Recommended For Seeding Sage and Mt. Brush Communities.


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Most Commonly Seeded Forbs

Pounds purchased in 2000*

Species

*BLM Purchases in 2000


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Other Seed Purchased

Pounds purchased in 2000*

Species

*BLM Purchases in 2000


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Forb species were listed as having potential for rangeland restoration.

Of the 76 forbs species listed,

63 were natives

13 were introduced.


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Equipment


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Seed Bed Preparation

Soil disturbance

Seed coverage

Safe sites for establishment

Micro sites for increasing moisture retention


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Seeding Requirements


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Alfalfa(Medicago sativa)

Dry land types are hybrids between the rhizomatous M. falcata (yellow flower) and the deep rooted M. sativa (purple flower).

Dry land types adapted to the great basin at >10” (persists best at 12 +) precipitation.

Fruit: legume

Germination: Very little dormancy. Will germinate with fall moisture and is susceptible to winter kill.

Seed as dormant seeding LATE fall or early spring.


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Small Burnet: (Sanguisorba minor)

Very palatable semi-evergreen, nitrogen fixer, highly nutritious.

Cultivar: Delar.

Establishes well when seed drilled (at ¼ to ¾ in.), or aerial applied and covered.

Establishes well at 12” precipitation does not withstand heavy grazing at dryer sites.


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Utah Sweetvetch: (Hedysarum boreal)

Palatable legume, deep rooted, occurring in sagebrush, pinyon/juniper, and oakbrush types.

Cultivar: Timp.

Seed:Has a lomented pod that disarticulates at ripening.

34,000 seeds per pound.

Fall seed, some dormancy requiring 1 month stratification. Seed at ½ in., 2 lbs per acre.


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Cicer Milkvetch:(Astragalus cicer)

Adapted to upper sagebrush, pinyon/juniper, and oakbrush (>14”).

Good forage and seed producer. Bird and small mammals utilize the seed.

Released varieties: Lutana, Monarch.

Sainfoin:(Onobrychis viciafolia)

Non-bloating legume, adapted to >12 inches precipitation.

Highly palatable and nutritious, is preferred by deer, elk, and sage grouse.Seed: 18,000 seeds per lb. Seed at 2 to 5 lbs per acre in mix.

Released varieties: Eski, Remont.


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Western Yarrow(Achillia millifolium)

Cultivar: Variety from Eagle Id. Will be released soon

Wide distribution

Used by hens and chicks, harbors insects.

Very small seed- 4 million per pound.

Surface seed in the Fall, 0.25 to 1 lb per acre.

Establishes readily.


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Pacific Aster:(Aster chilensis)

Asters as a group are an important component to the native communities.

Consist of a broad array of species.

Small seeded 2.5 million seeds per pound.

Requires 2-4 week stratification

Balsamroot:(Balsamoriza spp.)

Wide spread in Intermountain area.

Early spring green up, good wildlife forage.

Large seeds, 55,000 per pound.

Slow to establish, but very persistent.


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Showy Goldeneye: (Viguiera multifora, V. nevadensis.)

V. multiflora- broadly adapted to many vegetative types. When purchasing seed be sure of the source. Ranges from Sage, p/j to sub alpine.

V. nevadensis- occurs in drier sites in the Great Basin.

Small seeded 1 million per pound. Does well on surface, can be drilled.

Good seed producer with strong seedlings.

Early spring green up.

Readily sought out by wildlife as a herbaceous forage, and seed is utilized by birds.


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Hawksbeard:(Crepis spp.)Fleabane:(Erigeron spp.)Salsify:(Tragopogon spp.)

Seed: Generally small seeded, but do establish well on disturbed sites.

Little information on seed and seeding requirements.

No current releases

The importance of these species to sage grouse and other wildlife is becoming more understood.


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Forbs

Broadleaf Forbs

Family Genus Common name .

Apiaceae Lomatium Desert parsley

Linaceae Linum Flax

Malvaceae Sphaeralcea Globemallow

Polygonaceae Eriogonum Desert Buckwheat

Scrophulariaceae Penstemon Penstemon


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Forb Releases

Species Origin Release Class

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Eriogonum niveumSD Umatilla Cultivar

E. umbellatumCA Sierra Cultivar

Linum perenneSD Appar Cultivar (escaped?)

Lomatium spp.--- ----------- ----------

Penstemon eatoniiUTRichfield Selected

P. palmeriUTCedar Cultivar

P.strictusNM Bandera Cultivar

P.venustusID Clearwater Selected

Sphaeralcea coccineaID ARS-2936 Germplasm

S. munroanaUT ARS-2892 Selected


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Seed Quality Testing

Species Germination Rule Viability Test

Eriogonum X

Linum X

L. perenne X

Lomatium

Penstemon XX

P. eatonii X

P. palmeri X

P.strictusX

P.venustusX

Sphaeralcea X

S. coccinea

S. munroana


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Family LinaceaeLinum perenne var. ’Appar’Perennial Blue Flax

  • Widely adapted

  • Produced in seed fields

  • Easily seeded

  • Establishes in mixtures


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Linum lewisiiLewis flax, Wild blue flax

  • Widely distributed

  • Considerable intraspecific

    variation

  • Great Basin

    cultivar being developed


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Family: PolygonaceaeEriogonum spp. , Wild buckwheat

E. heracleoides

Wyeth buckwheat

E. ovalifolium

Oval-leaf buckwheat

E. niveum

Snow buckwheat

E. umbellatum

Sulfurflower buckwheat


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Eriogonum: Seed

Inflorescence: Umbel

Fruit: 3-angled achene

Seeds/pound: 120,000 (E. umbellatum)

600,000 (E. niveum)

Harvest: Summer - Fall

Cleaning: Screen, chop, screen

Seed quality: Viability test available.

Germination: Species and ecotypic variation occur.


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Eriogonum: Seeding

Time: Fall.

Method: Drill (shallow), broadcast.

Germination: Prechilling usually

required.

Seedlings/stand: Pioneering species.


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‘Umatilla’ Snow BuckwheatEriogonum niveum

Origin: Umatilla Co., Oregon

Area of use: Interior Pacific Northwest.


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Family ApiaceaeLomatium spp. , Biscuitroot, Wild parsley

  • 70 species, nearly all

    in Western U.S.

  • Lower elevation sagebrush to

    subalpine

  • Early spring growth

  • Plants usually scattered


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Lomatium spp.: Seeds and Seeding

  • Seed supply unreliable

  • Hand harvested

  • Fruits flat, winged, easily

  • cleaned and seeded

  • Seedlings vigorous

  • No cultivars, germination

  • test or viability procedure

L. triternatum

Nine-leaved biscuitroot


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Family MalvaceaeSphaeralcea spp., Globemallow

  • 25 species in the West, most common

    in the Southwest

  • 8-12 inch precipitation zone

  • Establishes during wet years,

    persists in seedbank

  • Several ploidy levels occur

  • One of the few forbs seeded in

    salt desert shrublands

S. munroana

Munro globemallow

S. grossulariifolia

Gooseberryleaf globemallow


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Sphaeralcea spp.: Seeds and Seeding

  • Flowering indeterminate

  • Seed collected by hand

  • 500,000 seeds per pound

  • Drill seed or broadcast and cover

  • Seeds require scarification

    and prechilling

  • Germplasm releases:

    • ARS-2936 S.coccinea

    • ARS-2892 S. munroana

  • No germination or viability test

S. munroana

Munro globemallow


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Family ScrophulariaceaePenstemon spp., Penstemon

P. speciosus

P. deustus

P. peckii

P. fruticosus


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Penstemon: Seed

  • Harvested from native stands or seed fields

  • Seed small (100,000 to 600,000 per pound)

  • Seed easily cleaned and handled

  • Longevity of seed in dry storage: 4 to 6 years

  • Field culture and seed production studied


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Penstemon: Seeding

  • Fall seeding -prechilling often

    required

  • Drill (shallow) or broadcast

    and cover

  • Can be seeded with other

    small seeded forbs and shrubs

  • Matures fairly rapidly

  • Germination rule and TZ

    procedures available.


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Penstemon: Releases

Scientific Common Release Release

name name Origin name type .

P. eatoniiFirecracker UTRichfield Selected

P. palmeriPalmerUT Cedar Cultivar

P.strictusRocky Mt. NM Bandera Cultivar

P.venustusAlpine ID Clearwater Selected


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The Pre-variety Germplasm Release ProgramA “Fast Track” Alternative Release Procedure

Certification type:

Site-Identified

Verified for geographic origin. No comparisons made with other germplasms of the species.

Selected Class

Germplasm compared on a common site with other germplasms.

Tested Class

Progeny tested to ensure that observed traits are heritable and stable.

Cultivar/Variety

Tested material for which there is considerable market demand.


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Research Requirements

  • Plant ecology

    • Ecotypic variability and distribution

  • Plant biology

    • Seed characteristics, germination requirements

    • Seedbed ecology and establishment

  • Field culture and seed

    production

  • Forb genetics

  • Revegetation genetics


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Candidate SpeciesIdentification and ranking of important species

  • Field surveys

  • Distribution

  • Wildlife habitat values

  • Summary list


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Species Proposed for Development

Astragalus convallarius

A. lentiginosus

Crepis acuminata

Erigeron pumilus

Eriogonum corymbosum

E. ovalifolium

Hedysarum borealis utahensis

Lomatium nuttallii

Lupinus argenteus

Penstemon attenuatus

P. deustus

P. speciosus

Sphaeralcea coccinea

Vicia americana

Viguiera multiflora nevadensis


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