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Argument & Reasoning. Argument & Reasoning. rhetoric. According to Aristotle, ________, or the “art of persuasion” is "the ability, in each particular case, to see the available means of persuasion.” He described three main forms of rhetoric (persuasion): . Three Forms of Persuasion. ETHOS.

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Argument & Reasoning

rhetoric

  • According to Aristotle, ________, or the “art of persuasion” is "the ability, in each particular case, to see the available means of persuasion.” He described three main forms of rhetoric (persuasion):


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Three Forms of Persuasion

ETHOS

character

  • _______: Appeal to ________. When the speaker is seen as trustworthy, knowledgeable, and ___________ in the audience, the audience will likely accept what the speaker says as true.

interested


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trusted for over 100 years

Acme Gizmotronics, the company that you've , has recently entered the World Wide Web! Now you can purchase our through the internet. Our gizmos, widgets, and thingamabobs can be shipped to you within minutes. All come with the that makes Acme the company that for it's gizmo needs.

Our spokesperson, Mr. Coyote says "I've used Acme products for years. Their slingshots, rocket launchers, crowbars, pogo sticks, and power pills are the best around. And don't forget their high-powered dynamite! I buy everything from Acme. They are ."

quality

fine products

famous

lifetime guarantee

the world depends on

the company that I trust the most


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Three Forms of Persuasion

PATHOS

emotion

  • _______: Appeal to _______. Pathetic or emotional appeals, persuades audiences by _________ the emotions.

arousing


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Three Forms of Persuasion

LOGOS

reason

  • _______: Appeal to ______. Logos refers to different systems of reasoning, working together to persuade an audience.


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General

Spec

Three Types of Reasoning

Deductive

1. _________ Reasoning: From general to specific.

These types of arguments are called__________ and are proven by analyzing the claims:

A. All men or mortal B. Socrates is a man C. Therefore, Socrates is mortal

Syllogisms

True

True

True


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Deductive Reasoning

Not all syllogisms give true conclusions.

A. All cats are mortal B. Socrates is mortal C. Therefore, Socrates is ____

When we use deductive reasoning in normal conversation, we usually use an __________. Enthymemes allow the audience to supply the “_____________” evidence to support the claim.

True

True

a cat

False

enthymeme

common-sense


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Deductive Reasoning

Enthymemes simplify the syllogism to two steps:

Ex. Connie is a cheerleader, therefore Connie is very popular.

A. Connie is a cheerleader

B. ____________________

C. Connie is very popular

True

Cheerleaders are popular

?

?


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Deductive Reasoning

Questions to ask about Deductive Arguments:

  • Is the General Statement True?

  • Is the Specific Example True?

  • Does the Specific Example apply to the General Statement?

Is Connie a Cheerleader?

Are Cheerleaders popular?

Is Connie popular? Is it because she is a cheerleader, or for other reasons?


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General

Spec

Three Types of Reasoning

Inductive

  • _________: Reasoning from specific to general.

    We use inductive reasoning all the time, however, it does not provide ________, but only _________.

certainty

probability


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Inductive Reasoning

Ex. Evidence: Conclusion:

Questions:

I met 5 people from Conroe, they were all mean.

People from Conroe are mean.

Are there enough examples? (you only met 5 people)Are the examples typical? (anything unusual?)Are there important exceptions, or special cases? (at doctor’s office / dentist?)


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Inductive Reasoning

Ex. Evidence: Conclusion:

Questions:

The sun has risen every day for the past year.

The sun will rise tomorrow.

Are there enough examples? (365+) Are the examples typical? (Yes, usual occurrence)Are there important exceptions? (none foreseeable)


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Three Types of Reasoning

Cause & Effect

3. _____________: All effects have a specific cause.

CAUSE - - -> - - -> - - -> EFFECT

Ex1. Evidence:

Conclusion:

Questions:

Jane studied for hours.

She will get an “A” on the test

Is the Cause connected tothe Effect? Will studying for hours ensure an “A”?


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Cause & Effect

Ex2. Evidence: Conclusion:

Questions:

As the sale of ice cream increases, the murder rate goes up.

Eating ice cream causes murder.

Is the Cause connected tothe Effect? Could there be another explanation? i.e. More ice cream is sold in the summer when it is hot, heat causes tempers to flair, etc.


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Types of Faulty Reasoning

Glittering Generality

  • ________________: Vague and general statements that cannot be ________ or _________. Ex. “Pepsi is the best soda.”

  • ____________: Pilling up information about an ____ without much ______. Ex. “Join the Army. You’ll meet new people, go different places and can even get a college education.”

proven

disproven

Card Stacking

idea

backing


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Types of Faulty Reasoning

Bandwagon Appeal

  • _______________: Everyone else is doing it, ____ should do it also. Ex. “We are all going to the party, you don’t want to be left out.”

  • _________________: An endorsement by someone who is ___________ from the product / idea. Ex. George Foreman endorsing Meineke mufflers.

you

Unrelated Testimonial

disconnected


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Types of Faulty Reasoning

Name Calling

  • ___________: Attacks the person rather than the idea. (___________) Ex. “Oh yeah, well I have a better class average than you do.”

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