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Protein Protein Surprisingly little is known about protein and health but some recommendations Adults need 0.8 grams of protein/kg of body weight per day to keep from slowly breaking down their own tissues Just over 7 grams of protein are needed for every 20 pounds of body weight Protein

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Protein2 l.jpg
Protein

Surprisingly little is known about protein and health but some recommendations

Adults need 0.8 grams of protein/kg of body weight per day to keep from slowly breaking down their own tissues

Just over 7 grams of protein are needed for every 20 pounds of body weight


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Protein

There's relatively little solid information

on the ideal amount of protein in the diet

a healthy target for calories contributed by protein

the best kinds of protein.


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Too Little Protein?

the conditions known as Kwashiorkor and Maramus.

growth failure

loss of muscle mass

decreased immunity

weakening of the heart and respiratory system

You die


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Too Much Protein?

Digesting it releases acids that the body usually neutralizes with calcium and other buffering agents in the blood.

Eating lots of protein, such as the amounts recommended in the so-called low-carb or no-carb diets, removes lots of calcium from the body.

Some of this may be pulled from bone.


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What is Protein?

Take away the water and about 75 percent of body weight is protein

Muscle, bone, skin, hair, and virtually every other body part or tissue. (25% of muscle)

Enzymes that power many chemical reactions and the hemoglobin that carries oxygen

At least 10,000 different proteins make the body what it is.


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What is Protein?

Twenty or so basic building blocks, called amino acids, provide the raw material for all proteins. Following genetic instructions, the body strings together amino acids.

Some genes call for short chains, others are blueprints for long chains that fold, origami-like, into intricate, three-dimensional structures.


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What is Protein?

Because the body doesn't store amino acids, as it does fats or carbohydrates, it needs a daily supply of amino acids to make new protein.

It does not need a supply of dietary amino acids to make ALL the protein the body synthesizes in a day

Protein the body no longer requires is broken down to its component amino acids and they may be used to synthesis another body protein


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Amino Acids

Side group

Side group differences

is how the twenty

amino acids are

different .

O

H

N

C

C

H

OH

H

Amine

Group

Acid

Group


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The Chemist’s View of Proteins

  • Amino Acids

    • The unique side groups result in differences in the size, shape and electrical charge of an amino acid


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The Chemist’s View of Proteins

  • Amino Acids

    • Nonessential amino acids, also called dispensable amino acids, are ones the body can create.


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The Chemist’s View of Proteins

  • Amino Acids

    • Essential amino acids, also called indispensable amino acids, must be supplied by the foods people consume.

      • Essential amino acids include histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenyalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine.

    • Conditionally essential amino acids refer to amino acids that are normally nonessential but essential under certain conditions.


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The Chemist’s View of Proteins

  • Proteins

    • Amino acid chains are linked by peptide bonds in condensation reactions.

      • Dipeptides have two amino acids bonded together.

      • Tripeptides have three amino acids bonded together.

      • Polypeptides have more than two amino acids bonded together.


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Peptide Bonding

O

H

O

H

H

H

N

C

C

N

C

C

H

OH

H

OH

Side group 1

water

Side group 2

Amino Acid 1

Amino Acid 2


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Amino Acid Sequence

  • Protein is made by bonding amino acids in a specific sequence

  • .

  • Each amino acid must be but in the order specified by the genetic code responsible for synthesizing the protein

  • If an (essential) amino acid is unavailable, protein synthesis is limited


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Amino Acid Sequence

Amino acid 1

Amino acid 2


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Amino Acid Sequence

Amino acid3 3

Amino acid 1

Amino acid 2


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Amino Acid Sequence

Amino acid 3

Amino acid 1

Amino acid 4

Amino acid 2


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Amino Acid Sequence

Amino acid3 3

Amino acid 1

Amino acid 4

Amino acid 2

Amino acid 5

Amino acid 7

Amino acid 9

Amino acid 6

Amino acid 8

Amino acid 10

Amino acid 11

Amino acid 12

Amino acid 13

ETC>


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Proteins in the Body

  • Protein Synthesis

    • Synthesis is unique for each human being and is determined by the amino acid sequence.

    • Delivering the instructions through messenger RNA (genetic material)

      • Carries a code to the nuclear membrane

      • Presents a list to make a strand of protein

    • Transfer RNA lines up the amino acids and brings them to the messenger


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Proteins in the Body

  • Proteins are versatile and unique. The synthesis of protein is determined by genetic information.

  • Protein is constantly being broken down and synthesized in the body.

  • Researchers measure nitrogen balance to study synthesis, degradation and excretion of protein.


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Proteins in the Body

  • Protein has many important functions in the body.

  • Protein can be used for energy if needed; (gluconeogenesis) and its excesses are stored as FAT.

  • The study of proteins is called proteomics.


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Proteins in the Body

  • Roles of Proteins

    • Building Materials for Growth and Maintenance = LIFE

      • A matrix of collagen is filled with minerals to provide strength to bones and teeth.

      • Replaces tissues including the skin, hair, nails, and GI tract lining


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Proteins in the Body

  • Roles of Proteins

    • Enzymes are proteins that facilitate anabolic (building up) and catabolic (breaking down) chemical reactions.


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Proteins in the Body

  • Roles of Proteins

    • Hormones regulate body processes and some hormones are proteins.

      • An example is insulin.


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Proteins in the Body

  • Roles of Proteins

    • Regulators of Fluid Balance

      • Plasma proteins attract water

      • Maintain the volume of body fluids to prevent edema which is excessive fluid

      • Maintain the composition of body fluids


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Proteins in the Body

  • Roles of Proteins

    • Acid-Base Regulators

      • Act as buffers by keeping solutions acidic or alkaline

      • Acids are compounds that release hydrogen ions in a solution.

      • Bases are compounds that accept hydrogen ions in a solution.

      • Acidosis is high levels of acid in the blood and body fluids.

      • Alkalosis is high levels of alkalinity in the blood and body fluids.


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Proteins in the Body

  • Roles of Proteins

    • Transporters

      • Carry lipids, vitamins, minerals and oxygen in the body

      • Act as pumps in cell membranes, transferring compounds from one side of the cell membrane to the other


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Proteins in the Body

  • Roles of Proteins

    • Antibodies

    • are large proteins that are found in blood or other bodily fluids of vertebrates

      • Fight bacteria and viruses, also known as antigens, that invade the body

      • Provide immunity to fight an antigen more quickly the second time exposure occurs


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Proteins in the Body

  • Roles of Proteins

    • Source of energy and glucose if needed

    • Other Roles

      • Blood clotting by producing fibrin which forms a solid clot

      • Vision by creating light-sensitive pigments in the retina


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Proteins in the Body

  • A Preview of Protein Metabolism

    • Protein Turnover and the Amino Acid Pool

      • Protein turnover is the continual making and breaking down of protein.

      • Amino acid pool is the supply of amino acids that are available.

    • Amino acids from food are called exogenous.

    • Amino acids from within the body are called endogenous.


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Amino Acid Pool

Cellular

Proteins

Dietary

Proteins

Amino Acid

Pool

Cellular

Proteins

Amino Acids

ENERGY

NH3


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Proteins in the Body

  • A Preview of Protein Metabolism

    • Nitrogen Balance

      • Zero nitrogen balance is nitrogen equilibrium, when input equals output.

      • Positive nitrogen balance means nitrogen consumed is greater than nitrogen excreted.

      • Negative nitrogen balance means nitrogen excreted is greater than nitrogen consumed.


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Proteins in the Body

  • A Preview of Protein Metabolism

    • Using Amino Acids to Make Proteins or Nonessential Amino Acids – Cells can assemble amino acids into the protein needed.

    • Using Amino Acids to Make Other Compounds

      • Neurotransmitters are made from the amino acid tyrosine.

      • Tyrosine can be made into the melanin pigment or thyroxine.

      • Tryptophan makes niacin and serotonin.


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Proteins in the Body

  • A Preview of Protein Metabolism

    • Using Amino Acids for Energy and Glucose

      • There is no readily available storage form of protein.

      • Breaks down tissue protein for

        energy if needed

glucose

Body Protein

Dietary Protein

Amino Acids


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Proteins in the Body

  • Proteins are versatile and unique. The synthesis of protein is determined by genetic information.

  • Protein is constantly being broken down and synthesized in the body.

  • Researchers measure nitrogen balance to study synthesis, degradation and excretion of protein.

  • Protein has many important functions in the body.

  • Protein can be used for energy if needed; its excesses are stored as fat.

  • The study of proteins is called proteomics.


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Proteins in the Body

  • A Preview of Protein Metabolism

    • Deaminating Amino Acids

      • Nitrogen-containing amino groups are removed.

      • Ammonia is released into the bloodstream.

      • Ammonia is converted into urea by the liver.

      • Kidneys filter urea out of the blood.

    • Using Amino Acids to Make Fat

      • Excess protein is deaminated and converted into fat.

      • Nitrogen is excreted.


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Proteins in the Body

  • A Preview of Protein Metabolism

    • Deaminating Amino Acids

O

H

H

  • Nitrogen-containing amino groups are removed.

  • Ammonia is released into

  • the bloodstream.

  • Ammonia is converted into

  • urea by the liver.

  • Kidneys filter urea out of

  • the blood.

N

C

C

H

OH

Side group


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Proteins in the Body

  • A Preview of Protein Metabolism

    Using Amino Acids to Make Fat

    • Excess protein is deaminated and converted into fat.

    • Nitrogen is excreted.

FAT

Body Protein

Dietary Protein

Amino Acids

Ammonia

Ammonia


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Dietary Protein

Complete protein contains all the essential amino acids needed to build new proteins.

Animal sources of protein tend to be complete

Incomplete proteins sources lack one or more essential amino acids that the body can't make from scratch or create by modifying another amino acid

These usually come from fruits, vegetables, grains, and nuts.


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Protein in Foods

  • Eating foods of high-quality protein is the best assurance to get all the essential amino acids.

  • Complementary proteins can also supply all the essential amino acids.

  • A diet inadequate in any of the essential amino acids limits protein synthesis.

  • The quality of protein is measured by its amino acid content, digestibility, and ability to support growth.


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Protein in Foods

  • Protein Quality

    • Digestibility

      • Depends on protein’s food source

        • Animal proteins are 90-99% absorbed.

        • Plant proteins are 70-90% absorbed.

        • Soy and legumes are 90% absorbed.

      • Other foods consumed at the same time can change the digestibility


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Protein in Foods

  • Protein Quality

    • Amino Acid Composition

      • The liver can produce nonessential amino acids.

      • Cells must dismantle to produce essential amino acids if they are not provided in the diet.

      • Limiting amino acids are those essential amino acids that are supplied in less than the amount needed to support protein synthesis.

    • Reference Protein is the standard by which other proteins are measured. (Egg White)

      • Based on their needs for growth and development, preschool children are used to establish this standard.


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Protein in Foods

  • Protein Quality

    • High-Quality Proteins

      • Contains all the essential amino acids

      • Animal foods contain all the essential amino acids.

      • Plant foods are diverse in content and tend to be missing one or more essential amino acids.

    • Complementary Proteins

      • Combining plant foods that together contain all the essential amino acids

      • Used by vegetarians


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Protein in Foods

  • Protein Quality

    • A Measure of Protein Quality - PDCAAS (protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score)

      • Compares amino acid composition of a protein to human amino acid requirements

      • Adjusts for digestibility


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Protein in Foods

  • Protein Regulation for Food Labels

    • List protein quantity in grams

    • % Daily Values is not required but reflects quantity and quality of protein using PDCAAS.


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Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Protein

  • Protein deficiency and excesses can be harmful to health.

  • Protein deficiencies arise from protein-deficient diets and energy-deficient diets.

  • This is a worldwide malnutrition problem, especially for young children.

  • High-protein diets have been implicated in several chronic diseases.


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Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Protein

  • Protein-Energy Malnutrition (PEM) – also called protein-kcalorie malnutrition (PCM)

    • Classifying PEM

      • Chronic PEM and acute PEM

      • Maramus, kwashiorkor, or a combination of the two


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Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Protein

  • PEM

    • Marasmus

      • Infancy, 6 to 18 months of age

      • Severe deprivation or impaired absorption of protein, energy,

        vitamins and minerals

      • Develops slowly

      • Severe weight loss and muscle wasting, including the heart

      • < 60% weight-for-age

      • Anxiety and apathy

      • Good appetite is possible

      • Hair and skin problems



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Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Protein

PEM

  • Kwashiorkor

    • Older infants and young children, 18 months to 2 years of age

    • Inadequate protein intake, infections

    • Rapid onset

    • Some muscle wasting, some fat retention

    • Growth is 60-80% weight-for-age

    • Edema and fatty liver

    • Apathy, misery, irritability and sadness

    • Loss of appetite

    • Hair and skin problems



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Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Protein

  • PEM

    • Marasmus-Kwashiorkor Mix

      • Both malnutrition and infections

      • Edema of kwashiorkor

      • Wasting of marasmus


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Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Protein

  • PEM

    • Infections

      • Lack of antibodies to fight infections

      • Fever

      • Fluid imbalances and dysentery

      • Anemia

      • Heart failure and possible death

    • Rehabilitation

      • Nutrition intervention must be cautious, slowly increasing protein.

      • Programs involving local people work better.


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Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Protein

  • Health Effects of Protein

    • Heart Disease

      • Foods high in animal protein also tend to be high in saturated fat.

      • Homocysteine levels increase cardiac risks.

      • Arginine may protect against cardiac risks.


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Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Protein

  • Health Effects of Protein

    • Cancer

      • A high intake of animal protein is associated with some cancers.

      • Is the problem high protein intake or high fat intake?


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Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Protein

  • Health Effects of Protein

    • Adult Bone Loss (Osteoporosis)

      • High protein intake associated with increased calcium excretion.

      • Inadequate protein intake affects bone health also.


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Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Protein

  • Health Effects of Protein

    • Weight Control

      • High-protein foods are often high-fat foods.

      • Protein at each meal provides satiety.

      • Adequate protein, moderate fat and sufficient carbohydrate better support weight loss.

    • Kidney Disease

      • High protein intake increases the work of the kidneys.

      • Does not seem to cause kidney disease


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Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Protein

  • Recommended Intakes of Protein

    • 10-35% energy intake

    • Protein RDA

      • 0.8 g/kg/day

      • Assumptions

        • People are healthy.

        • Protein is mixed quality.

        • The body will use protein efficiently.


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Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Protein

  • Recommended Intakes of Protein

    • Adequate Energy

      • Must consider energy intake

      • Must consider total grams of protein

    • Protein in abundance is common in the U.S. and Canada.


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Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Protein

  • Protein and Amino Acid Supplements

    • Protein Powders have not been found to improve athletic performance.

      • Whey protein is a waste product of cheese manufacturing. (Chicken Wings of the supplement industry)

      • Purified protein preparations increase the work of the kidneys.


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Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Protein

  • Protein and Amino Acid Supplements

    • Amino Acid Supplements are not beneficial and can be harmful.

      • Branched-chain amino acids provide little fuel and can be toxic to the brain.

      • Lysine appears safe in certain doses.

      • Tryptophan has been used experimentally for sleep and pain, but may result in a rare blood disorder.


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Protein & Chronic Disease

Cardiovascular disease; it is possible that eating more protein, especially vegetable protein, while cutting back on easily digested carbohydrates may benefit heart disease

Diabetes; the amount of protein in the diet doesn't seem to adversely affect the development of type 2 (adult-onset) diabetes, although research in this area is ongoing

Cancer;there's no good evidence that eating a little protein or a lot of it influences cancer risk


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Protein & Weight Control

High-protein, low-carbohydrate diets may work more quickly than low-fat diets, at least in the first six months.

After a year or so, weight loss is about equal


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Slower stomach emptying means you feel full for longer and get hungrier later.

Protein's gentle, steady effect on blood sugar avoids the quick, steep rise in blood sugar that occurs after eating a rapidly digested carbohydrate, like white bread or baked potato

The body uses more energy to digest protein than it does to digest fat or carbohydrate.

Protein & Weight Control


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Recommendations for Protein Intake get hungrier later.

Get a good mix of proteins. Almost any reasonable diet will give enough protein. Eating a variety of foods will ensure that all of the amino acids need are available.

Pay attention to the protein package Some comes packaged with lots of unhealthy fat, Some without much saturated fat and with plenty of healthful fiber and micronutrients.


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Balance carbohydrates and protein. get hungrier later.

Cutting back on highly processed carbohydrates and increasing protein improves levels of blood triglycerides and HDL, and may reduce the chances of having a heart attack, stroke, or other form of cardiovascular disease.

It may also make you feel full longer, and stave off hunger pangs.

Too much protein, though, could weaken bones.

Recommendations for Protein Intake


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Recommendations for Protein Intake get hungrier later.

AGE grams/pound amount

0-6 months 1 gram/# 13 grams

6-12 mo .7 gms/# 14 grams

1-3 years .6 gms/# 16 grams

4-6 .55 gms/# 24 grams

7-14 .45 gms/# 28-45 gms

15-18 .4 gms/# 44-59 gms

Adults .35 gms/# 50-65 gms


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Protein Intake get hungrier later. Summary

  • Important for growth (height) and development

  • Needed in smaller amount than most people think (.8 grams/kilogram BW) = RDA

  • Can be gotten from a variety of plant foods as well as the animal foods (meat, dairy)‏

  • Use as a part of the meal, not as the meal (eat lean, less and last)‏


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