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Y-Comm: A new architecture for heterogeneous networking. Glenford Mapp Principal Lecturer, Middlesex University & Visiting Research Fellow Computer Lab, University of Cambridge. Outline. Motivation – defining the problem Our approach – looking at a solution Y-Comm – a new architecture

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y comm a new architecture for heterogeneous networking

Y-Comm: A new architecture for heterogeneous networking

Glenford Mapp

Principal Lecturer, Middlesex University

&

Visiting Research Fellow

Computer Lab, University of Cambridge

outline
Outline
  • Motivation – defining the problem
  • Our approach – looking at a solution
  • Y-Comm – a new architecture
  • The Peripheral Framework
  • The Core Framework
  • Security in Y-Comm
  • Research Collaboration
  • Questions
network evolution
Network Evolution
  • The proliferation of wireless systems at the edge of the Internet and the use of fast switching in the core.
  • Core of the network
    • Super-fast backbone (optical switching, etc)
    • Fast access networks (MPLS, ATM)
  • Peripheral Wireless Networks
    • Errors due to fading, etc; not just congestion
    • Handover
handover is a serious operation
Handover is a serious operation
  • Handover
    • Requires co-operation between the Mobile Node and the Network
    • A source of performance degradation
      • Needs to be carefully handled to be successful
  • Handover Types
    • Horizontal handover – studied extensively
    • Vertical Handover – needs to be investigated in order to support heterogeneous networking
key components of vertical handover
Key Components of Vertical Handover
  • Handover mechanisms
      • How to do vertical handover with minimal disruption
  • Policy management
      • Deciding when and where to do a vertical handover
  • Input triggers, states and events
      • How to get the data the system needs to make a decision on whether to do a handover
cambridge wireless testbed
Cambridge Wireless Testbed
  • Built in 2003 to study vertical handover
    • By Leo Patanapongpibul and Pablo Vidales
  • Used an experimental 3G/GPRS network developed by Vodafone
  • Used MIPv6 – connected to 6Bone
  • 2 802.11b networks and an IPv6 wired network
  • Various end devices
    • Fixed machines, laptops and iPAQs
equipment and goals
Equipment and Goals
  • Client-based solution for horizontal handovers
  • MIPv6 performance during vertical handovers
  • Improvements to vertical handover latency
  • Policy-based solution to provide mobility support
  • Policy-based solution to support multiple interfaces
  • QoS-based vertical mobility
  • Context-aware algorithms

Mobile Node

Correspondent

Node

Home Agent

Access Router to live

Vodafone GPRS network

Other MNs

key publications available from http www cl cam ac uk research dtg publications
Key Publications : available from: http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/Research/DTG/publications
  • L. Patanapongpibul, G .Mapp, A. Hopper, An End System Approach to Mobility Management for 4G Networks and its Application to Thin-Client Computing, ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile Computing and Communications Review, ACM July 2006
  • P. Vidales, J. Baliosian, J. Serrat, G. Mapp, F. Stajano, A. Hopper, Autonomic Systems for Mobility Support in 4G Networks. Journal on Selected Areas in Communications (J-SAC), Special Issue in Autonomic Communications (4th Quarter), December 2005.
  • D.Cottingham and P. Vidales, Is Latency the Real Enemy of Next Generation Networks, First International Workshop on Convergence of Heterogeneous Networks, July 2005
  • P. Vidales, R. Chakravorty, C. Policroniades, PROTON: A Policy-based Solution for Future 4G devices. 5th. IEEE International Workshop on Policies for Distributed Systems and Networks (IEEE POLICY 2004), June 2004
  • L. B. Patanapongpibul, G. Mapp, A Client-based Handoff Mechanism for Mobile IPv6 Wireless Networks. 8th IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC), IEEE Computer Society Press, June 2003.
a complete system for heterogeneous networking
A Complete System for Heterogeneous Networking
  • In order to build a complete system that
    • Does seamless vertical handover
    • Is extensible – seamlessly adds new technology
    • Is easy to develop new applications
  • Requires a lot of work
    • Can’t do this from scratch
    • Need to also look at what other people are doing
      • Ambient networks, etc
      • IEEE 802.21, etc
a new framework is needed
A New Framework is needed
  • Why?
    • Need to consider a lot of issues
      • Issues not covered by present reference models such as the OSI model
    • A way to think about building a complete system
    • Bring together different research efforts
the osi model
The OSI Model

APPLICATION LAYER

APPLICATION LAYER

PRESENTATION LAYER

PRESENTATION LAYER

SESSION LAYER

SESSION LAYER

TRANSPORT LAYER

TRANSPORT LAYER

NETWORK LAYER

NETWORK LAYER

NETWORK LAYER

DATA LINK LAYER

DATA LINK LAYER

DATA LINK LAYER

PHYSICAL LAYER

PHYSICAL LAYER

PHYSICAL LAYER

ENDPOINT

NETWORK

ENDPOINT

specifying the new framework
Specifying the New Framework
  • Layered approach of the OSI model
    • Encase functionality in terms of layers
    • Can give a good hierarchical but modular model
    • We know that the layered approach has its problems
      • This is a reference not an implementation specification – so it is possible to squash layers together when implementing a real system
      • Need to be flexible
we need two not one
We Need Two Not One!
  • A framework for the Peripheral network
    • Represented by software running on the mobile node, supports:
      • Applications, QoS, Vertical Handover, support for several interfaces
  • A framework for the Core network
    • Represented by software running in the core network, supports
      • Programmable infrastructure, network management, QoS, Service Platform
the y comm framework
The Y-Comm Framework

CORE NETWORK

PERIPHERAL NETWORK

APPLICATION ENVIRONMENTS

SERVICE PLATFORM

QOS LAYER

NETWORK QOS LAYER

CORE TRANSPORT

END SYSTEM TRANSPORT

NETWORK MANAGEMENT

POLICY MANAGEMENT

VERTICAL HANDOVER

(RE)CONFIGURATION LAYER

NETWORK ABSTRACTION

(MOBILE NODE)

NETWORK ABSTRACTION

(BASE STATION)

HARDWARE PLATFORM

(MOBILE NODE)

HARDWARE PLATFORM

(BASE STATION)

the peripheral framework
The Peripheral Framework

APPLICATION ENVIRONMENTS LAYER

QOS LAYER

END TRANSPORT SYSTEM

POLICY MANAGEMENT LAYER

VERTICAL HANDOVER LAYER

NETWORK ABSTRACTION LAYER

HARDWARE PLATFORM LAYER

layer 1 hardware platform layer
Hardware Platform Layer

Defines the physical requirements for a particular wired or wireless technology

Expanded physical layer

Includes electromagnetic spectrum

Modulation and channel reservation algorithms

Incompatibility issues

Two technologies may be incompatible and cannot be used simultaneously

Layer 1: Hardware Platform Layer
but all this is about to change
But all this is about to change!
  • Need to make more efficient use of the electromagnetic spectrum
  • Cognitive Radio
    • A radio that is aware of and can sense its environment, learn from its environment, and adjust its operation according to some objective function
cognitive radio cr
Cognitive Radio (CR)
  • Technology
    • Software Defined Radio (SDR)
      • Wide spectrum receiver
      • Do the processing in real-time
    • Intelligent Signal Processing (ISP)
      • Allows it to detect interference and move to another part of the spectrum
    • Ideal cognitive Radio – Mitola Radio > 2030
      • Mitola radio uses CR as the physical layer of a communications model
      • That’s why CR is part of Y-Comm
cognitive radio
Cognitive Radio

SPECTRUM MANAGEMENT

3G

WLAN

WiMax

UltrawideBand

INTELLIGENT SIGNAL PROCESSING

SOFTWARE DEFINED RADIO

WIDE SPECTRUM REECIVER

layer 2 network abstraction layer
Layer 2: Network Abstraction layer
  • Network abstraction Layer
    • An abstraction that allows us to define, control and manage any wireless network on a mobile host
    • Key issues: data path functions; data formats (Link-layer), turning features on and off
    • Need to generate L2 triggers when a new network is detected or when an old network is no longer detectable
      • Build on 802.21
slide24

Link Layer Triggers

State Change

Predictive

Network Initiated

Applications (VoIP/RTP)

Connection Management

Handover Policy

Handover Management

Network Information

Available Networks

Neighbor Maps

Network Services

Mobility Management Protocols

IETF

802.21 MIH Function

Handover Commands

Client Initiated

Network Initiated

Vertical Handovers

Smart Triggers

Handover Messages

Information Service

IEEE 802.21

Handover Messages

Information Service

L2 Triggers and Events

Protocol and Device Hardware

WLAN

Cellular

WMAN

802.21 Overview

802.21: Key Services

802.21 uses multiple services to Optimize

Vertical Handovers

layer 3 vertical handover layer
Layer 3: Vertical Handover Layer
  • Layers that define the mechanism for vertical handover.
  • Support for different types
    • Network-based
    • Client-based
client based handover
Client-Based Handover
  • More scalable for heterogeneous networks
    • Mobile node can monitor the status of all its network interfaces via the network abstraction layer
    • Can take into account other factors such as the state of TCP connections
      • Don’t want to do a handover during the start and termination of TCP connections
layer 4 policy management layer
Layer 4: Policy Management layer
  • Decides if, when and where vertical handover should occur.
  • Different types:
    • Reactive
      • Depends on L2 events that inform the mobile node when it is entering or leaving a network.
    • Proactive
      • The mobile node can know or estimate the network state at a given point before it arrives at that point
reactive policy proton
Reactive Policy: PROTON

HIGHER LAYERS

Interface Information

L2 Triggers

INPUT/OUTPUT LAYER

POLICY LAYER (PONDER)

HANDOVER EXECUTION LAYER

LAN

WLAN

GPRS

layer 4 proactive policies
Layer 4: Proactive Policies
  • Proactive Policy Management
    • The mobile node can know or estimate the network state at a given point before it arrives at that point
    • Proactive Policies allow us to maximize the use of available channels provided you know the amount of time a channel will be available.
    • That time is known as:
      • Time before vertical handover (TBVH)
      • Can significantly reduce packet loss during all vertical handovers
layer 4 proactive policies1
Layer 4: Proactive policies
  • Proactive policies can themselves be divided into 2 types
  • Proactive knowledge-based systems
    • Knowledge of which local wireless networks are operating at a given location and their strengths at that point
    • We also need a system to maintain the integrity, accessibility and security of that data
proactive policies
Proactive Policies
  • Knowledge-based approach
  • Gather a database of the field strengths for each network around Cambridge
  • Need to maintain the database and also know how the results might be affected by seasonal effects
proactive policies modelling approach middlesex
Proactive Policies – Modelling Approach (Middlesex)
  • Using a simple mathematical model
  • Define a radius at which handover should occur
  • Find out how much time I have before I hit that circle, given my velocity and direction
  • Calculate TBVH
      • Used simulation (OPNET)
      • Can be used in the real world as well as in simulation
predictive mathematical model for tbvh simple case
Predictive Mathematical Model for TBVH(Simple Case)

Movement of MS under BBS coverage (upward vertical handoff)

  • Introduction of additional functionality to Base Station at

network boundary (BBS).

  • Distance between MS and BBS derived from location

co-ordinates or

  • Estimated TBVH
simulation and results
Simulation and Results

TBVH simulation in OPNET Modeler:

layer 5 end user transport system
Layer 5: End User Transport System
  • Specifies how data is routed to individual hosts and transport protocols for error correction, reliability and Quality-of-Service requirements
    • Encompasses Layer 3 and Layer 4 in the OSI model
  • Different approaches
    • Keep the same protocols as in the core network
    • Keep TCP/IP, but modify TCP
    • Don’t modify TCP but try to get it to respond more quickly to network outages
    • Try a completely new protocol suite
layer 5 continued
Layer 5: Continued
  • Keep TCP/IP Unmodified
    • Leads to sub-optimum performance.
      • TCP assumes packet loss is only due to congestion and goes into slow start.
    • Work on the Cambridge Testbed indicates to the slow adaptation rate of TCP after vertical handover is a cause for concern
      • Need to fit the TCP protocol engine with triggers
layer 5 continued1
Layer 5: Continued
  • Keep TCP/IP but modify TCP
    • I-TCP, M-TCP
    • TCP Extensions for Immediate Retransmissions (Internet Draft)
  • Don’t modify TCP but build mechanisms so that it could respond more quickly to media outages
    • Smart Link Layer (Scott and Mapp 2003)
layer 5 the case for a new transport infrastructure
Layer 5: The case for a new transport Infrastructure
  • A new transport system could be more suited for wireless networking
  • Do all machines have to have an IP address to use the Internet?
      • No.. Look at Network Address Translation (NAT)
      • Translation is done between a private address and port to a global address and port at the NAT server
layer 5 continued2
Layer 5: Continued
  • A global IP address in the case of NAT is really being used as an endpoint in the core network
  • So we can use another network scheme in the peripheral network once we can specify how we map it to TCP/IP or UDP/IP in the core network
layer 5 application conformance
Layer 5: Application Conformance
  • You don’t want to recompile all your applications for this new framework
  • Concept of a TCP protocol interface
    • Key idea is that TCP becomes an interface so that the TCP engine forms an overlay above the actual protocol running in the network. So the application thinks it’s running TCP/IP but there is another protocol “under the hood”.
layer 5 tcp as a protocol interface in peripheral networks but a real protocol in the core network
Layer 5: TCP as a Protocol Interface in Peripheral Networks but a real protocol in the Core Network

APPLICATION

APPLICATION

Core Network

TCP Overlay

TCP Overlay

Local

protocol

Local

protocol

TCP/IP

Core Network

Peripheral Network

Peripheral Network

layer 6 qos layer
Layer 6: QoS Layer
  • QoS is the most dynamically changing component in heterogeneous networking
  • Applications running on heterogeneous devices need support to handle this
  • Two Concepts of QoS
    • Downward QoS
    • Upward QoS
layer 6 downward qos
Layer 6: Downward QoS
  • Mainly to support legacy applications
  • The application specifies a minimum QoS and the QoS layer does the mapping between the QoS that the application requires and the QoS that is currently available - but is dynamically changing
layer 6 upward qos
Layer 6: Upward QoS
  • For applications that should adapt to changes in QoS, e.g. Multimedia services, etc
    • The QoS layer therefore signals the application using an event mechanism to indicate changes in the available QoS
    • Applications can specify routines that will be called when the events occur
      • Similar to the X Window System
qos layer
QoS Layer

DOWNWARD QOS

UPWARD QOS

APPLICATION LAYER

APPLICATION LAYER

QOS LAYER

QOS LAYER

END TRANSPORT LAYER

END TRANSPORT LAYER

POLICY MANAGEMENT LAYER

POLICY MANAGEMENT LAYER

layer 7 application environment layer
Layer 7: Application Environment Layer
  • Allows users to build applications using this framework
  • Keen on using the Toolkit approach which allows us to build different application environments for different situations
    • e.g. an application environment for highly mobile video applications, etc.
slide49

Layer 7: Toolkit Approach

Application Environment 1

High-Mobile, Multimedia

Vehicular Applications

FRAMEWORK OBJECTS

PROACTIVE

Handover

Unreliable Transport

Upward QoS

Location Services

(GPS)

Reliable Transport

REACTIVE

Handover

Downward QoS

Application Environment 2

Touring Applications; Web access

via cheap mobile phone

the y comm framework half way there let s stop for questions
The Y-Comm FrameworkHalf-way there!Let’s stop for questions

CORE NETWORK

PERIPHERAL NETWORK

APPLICATION ENVIRONMENTS

SERVICE PLATFORM

QOS LAYER

NETWORK QOS LAYER

CORE TRANSPORT

END SYSTEM TRANSPORT

NETWORK MANAGEMENT

POLICY MANAGEMENT

VERTICAL HANDOVER

(RE)CONFIGURATION LAYER

NETWORK ABSTRACTION

(MOBILE NODE)

NETWORK ABSTRACTION

(BASE STATION)

HARDWARE PLATFORM

(MOBILE NODE)

HARDWARE PLATFORM

(BASE STATION)

do we really need the core framework
Do we really need the Core Framework?
  • Yes
    • To support the Peripheral networks you need to change
      • For client-based handover we need to have access to network resources
        • Need a more open architecture
    • But we also need an open architecture for other reasons
open management needed
Open Management Needed
  • More diversified networks needed
    • Present mobile networks are built on a national or international level: -
      • just like the old state-owned telecom companies
        • such as BT
      • Difficult to really produce more tailored networks such as regional networks or city-wide networks
    • Spectrum management
      • Spectrum sold nationally to an operator who ran a service
        • Not interested in small or regional networks
      • Reversal in spectrum allocation
        • Now Ofcom is willing to allow more unlicensed bands
rfeye from crfs cambridge
RFEye from CRFS Cambridge

Ofcom will be able to monitor

The use of spectrum in real-time

Used to be expensive but new

technology from a company called

CRFS will make these units cheap.

RFEye

Develop a database of spectrum use

http://www.crfs.co.uk/product.html

open management needed1
Open Management Needed
  • So the question is who is really making money from mobile systems at the moment??
  • The answer:
    • Very few people
      • Vodafone, T-Mobile
        • Spent loads of money on spectrum, they need to grow bigger to recoup the money spent
      • These companies are highly vertical institutions
        • Same company does hardware, manage the network and also run or tailor most applications
open management needed2
Open Management Needed
  • More niche players
  • Let different players provide different components of the network but everyone needs to agree on a new framework and related standards
  • Compare this to what happened with the PC industry
open management needed3
Open Management Needed
  • 1960’s – 1980’s
    • Main Frame or Minicomputer
    • Dominated by IBM and DEC
  • 1978
    • Altair the first micro-processor
      • Bill Gates and Paul Allen wrote Basic compiler
  • 1982
    • The IBM PC released and that changed the world
why did the ibm pc changed the world
Why did the IBM PC changed the world
  • It allowed third parties to get involved and therefore allowing a mature industry to develop with many niche/specialist players
    • Visicalc, Eudora, etc
  • Because of DOS
    • A broken but open operating system
      • But it was the standard
        • Allowed new people to write applications
        • You didn’t have to be IBM or DEC
        • Also made PC affordable
  • The same thing has to happen in the Mobile Industry
three recent developments
Three recent developments
  • Open Handset Alliance (OHA)
    • Founded by Google with 34 founding members
      • Google contributing Android
        • An operating system based on Linux
      • First GPhone about to be released
  • Verizon – a large Telco
    • Allow third party devices onto their network
  • FCC
    • Moving towards a device-agnostic spectrum policy
    • So third party devices would become the norm
the core framework
The Core Framework

SERVICE PLATFORM LAYER

NETWORK QOS LAYER

NETWORK TRANSPORT SYSTEM

NETWORK MANAGEMENT LAYER

(RE)CONFIGURATION LAYER

NETWORK ABSTRACTION LAYER

HARDWARE PLATFORM LAYER

hardware platform layer represented as vertical components separate base stations
Hardware Platform Layer Represented as Vertical Components – separate base stations

3G

WLAN

802.11

WiMax

802.16

UltraWideBand

cognitive radio will change this as it will all be done in the same box
Cognitive Radio will change this as it will all be done in the same box

SPECTRUM MANAGEMENT

3G

WLAN

WiMax

UltrawideBand

INTELLIGENT SIGNAL PROCESSING

SOFTWARE DEFINED RADIO

RFEye -> unified base-station

WIDE SPECTRUM REECIVER

network abstraction layer
Network Abstraction Layer
  • Again similar to Peripheral Network
    • Abstraction that abstracts a number of different wireless technologies
    • Also includes base-station controller functions
      • Extension of 802.21
    • Exportable interface so that the base-station can be remotely controlled
    • Monitoring and reporting functions
re configurable layer
(Re)configurable Layer
  • Controls core infrastructure including routers and switches
    • Programmable hardware
      • Routelets and Switchlets
      • Already used internally in network equipment but not exported to external systems especially end-devices
      • The concept of the programmable network hardware began with XBind
        • From the Comet Group led by Aurel Lazar (Columbia University, New York)
xbind
Xbind
  • So the big idea of Xbind is that we could use it as a kernel and virtualize network infrastructure through the broadband Kernel
  • Layers of XBind
    • Applications (WWW Server)
    • Services (e.g. Multimedia services – video conf)
    • Broadband Kernel – Management Plane
    • Binding Interface – Abstraction of real Hardware
    • Real Hardware
xbind the layers
XBind – The Layers

APPLICATIONS

Multimedia Web Services

MULTIMEDIA SERVICES

Video Conf Manager

BROADBAND KERNEL (High Level Abstraction and Service)

Device Management, Connection Manager, Router

Binding Interface Base (BIB)

Virtual Switch, Virtual Link, Camera device driver, Display device driver

Hardware (Real Devices and Real Network)

Camera, Computers, Links, Adapters, Displays

extension of key x bind ideas
Extension of Key X-Bind Ideas
  • Since we can control the hardware virtually using software, the hardware and the software need not be in the same box
    • Make the hardware box only understand the interface
    • Talk to the box over a serial link using a computer
    • Control software runs on the computer
x bind the extensions
X-BIND: The extensions

MANAGEMENT

CONTROL OF CONNECTIONS

SERIAL LINE

RAW ATM SWITCH

VCI OPERATION

openarch and opensig
OpenArch and OpenSig
  • You need a management protocol to manage the switch
  • You also need a signalling protocol
    • You need to agree on the format of the commands that go across your serial line
  • Two forums were established to do this
    • OpenArch – management plane
    • OpenSig – for signalling
why do we need it now
Why do we need it now?
  • We have never had open interfaces for mobile systems
    • Base-stations, BSC, MSC, etc
  • Because we need resources to do vertical handover, especially for client-based handover
  • We have to get those resources from the network
    • Channels on base-stations, QoS, etc
vertical handover
Vertical Handover

GPS

Location,

Speed, direction

Connections

(QoS)

TBVH

New QoS

New IP

Polling

CORE NETWORK

Done

NETWORK MANAGEMENT LAYER

Send to Mobile

TOPOLOGY, RESOURCES, QoS

POLICY MANAGEMENT LAYER

DECISION HANDOVER

(BASE-STATION, 3G, QOS, TBVH)

DO IT

RECONFIGURABLE LAYER

ACQUIRE CHANNEL

(3G, BASE-STATION, QOS)

VERTICAL HANDOVER LAYER

ACQUIRE RESOURCES

( 3GCHAN, BASE-STATION, QOS)

DO IT

NETWORK ABSTRACTION LAYER

BASE-STATION

NETWORK ABSTRACTION LAYER

DATA CHANNNEL = 3G

3G=ACTIVE WLAN=PASSIVE WiMAX= PASSIVE

CHANNEL ACQUIRED

L2 events

Media Info

3G

WLAN

WiMax

3G

WLAN

WiMax

handover is complicated
Handover is complicated

HANDOVER

ALTERNATIVE

IMPERATIVE

SERVICES

NETPREF

CONTEXT

REACTIVE

USERPREF

PROACTIVE

UNANTICIPATED

ANTICIPATED

MODEL-BASED

KNOWLEDGE-BASED

need an ontology for vertical handover
Need an Ontology for Vertical Handover
  • Helps us to structure the information so that the system could reason and take decisions
    • ICMC, USP – strong in this area
    • Edson Moreira, Renata Vanni and others
    • Reason for my recent visit to Brazil in summer 2008
the network management layer
The Network Management Layer
  • Defines and controls several networks
  • Each network is controlled by a network operator
  • Support for network virtualization and partitioning
    • Several networks managed by different network operators but on the same extended hardware platform
      • Will facilitate regional or city-wide operators
network management what we want
Network ManagementWhat we want
  • Networks to be managed in a flexible way
  • An interface that defines and manages an entire network in terms of programmable components, including switchlets, routelets, etc.
    • i.e. network virtualization
      • using software abstraction to control the network
  • Create new networks (spawning)
  • Merge and partition networks
network management
NETWORK MANAGEMENT

HIGH-LEVEL FUNCTIONS

Network Topologies

Network Resources

CREATE MODIFY MERGE JOIN

NETWORK 1

NETWORK 2

NETWORK 3

NETWORK 4

(RE)CONFIGURATION LAYER

Network

Components

core transport system
Core Transport System
  • Concerned about moving data between points in the core network
  • TCP/IP is the Transport and Network protocols for the Internet
  • Migration of IPv4 to IPv6
    • Important for the new framework
    • Need enhancements
      • Easier mechanisms to support security
        • VPNs, Tunnelling, etc
core transport in y comm
Core Transport in Y-Comm

PERIPHERAL

WIRELESS

NETWORK

CORE NETWORK

QoS, Secure Connection

PERIPHERAL

WIRELESS

NETWORK

Core Endpoints

In Access Network

core transport making connections between core endpoints
Core Transport: Making Connections between Core Endpoints

Make connection

Between Wireless

Networks

CORE TRANSPORT LAYER

ENDP1, ENDP2, QoS Routing, Security

NETWORK MANAGEMENT LAYER

network qos layer
Network QoS Layer
  • Most of the QoS issues are now in the Peripheral Network
  • Current End-to End QoS models
    • IntServ
      • Largely abandoned
    • DiffServ
      • Slow deployment
  • Need to explore network QoS models
    • Negotiation structure between Core Network and Peripheral Networks
enhance qos functionality
Enhance QoS Functionality

Negotiating with

Peripheral Networks

CORE NETWORK QOS

ENDPT1

ENDPT2

ENDPT3

PER FLOW (IntServ), PER CLASS (Diffserv)

service platform
Service Platform
  • Services developed by third parties
  • Should be able to configure services on several networks at the same time
  • Support for installing services for specific types of networks
    • London travel service available to networks around London
service platform layer
SERVICE PLATFORM LAYER
  • Installation
    • Install over many networks simultaneously
    • Specifying QoS (minimum SLA)
  • Server Advertisement and Subscription
  • Session management
    • Interaction between server and application running on the mobile node
  • Supporting Mobility
    • How is QoS maintained even though the mobile is moving
      • Server replication, proxy server support
service platform and core network
Service Platform and Core Network

Server Advertisement

Subscription

Applications

SERVICE PLATFORM LAYER

Negotiating with

Peripheral Networks

CORE NETWORK QOS

SLA1

SLA2

SLA3

SLA 4

ENDPT1

…….

ENDPT2

ENDPT3

PER FLOW (IntServ), PER CLASS (Diffserv)

need to address security
Need to Address Security
  • Cannot be a separate Layer in the architecture as there are different kinds of security issues
  • Y-Comm defines a 4-layer security architecture
  • Comprehensive Design
    • Security system is integrated into the structure of Y-Comm
security in y comm
Security in Y-Comm
  • Network Architecture Security (NAS)
      • Security dealing with the deployment and management of different wireless technology
      • Managed from the Policy and Management layers
  • Network Transport Security (NTS)
        • Security dealing with end-to-end transport through Y-Comm
      • Done at Layer 5, NAT, IPSec, etc
  • QoS Based Security (QBS)
    • Look at QoS Issues
      • Looks at SLAs, prevents overloading
      • Looks at Denial of Service Attacks
  • Service and Application Security (SAS)
    • Security dealing with running applications and deploying services
      • AAAC, ACLs, User-based security
the y comm framework showing its security levels new security level
The Y-Comm Framework showing its Security Levels- New Security Level

CORE NETWORK

PERIPHERAL NETWORK

APPLICATION ENVIRONMENTS

SAS

SERVICE PLATFORM

QBS

QOS LAYER

NETWORK QOS LAYER

CORE TRANSPORT

END SYSTEM TRANSPORT

NTS

NAS

NETWORK MANAGEMENT

POLICY MANAGEMENT

VERTICAL HANDOVER

(RE)CONFIGURATION LAYER

NETWORK ABSTRACTION

(MOBILE NODE)

NETWORK ABSTRACTION

(BASE STATION)

HARDWARE PLATFORM

(MOBILE NODE)

HARDWARE PLATFORM

(BASE STATION)

research collaboration
Research Collaboration
  • Y-Comm is really too big to be done by one person or one group
  • Building a global research network to study Y-Comm
  • Not trying to implement everything
    • Using the effort and experience of others
    • A number of IEEE Working Groups
      • 802.21, 802.22
group so far
Group so far..
  • University of Cambridge
      • Proactive knowledge- based policy mechanisms for handover (David Cottingham)
      • Network issues around changing IP (Jon Crowcroft)
      • QoS-aware middleware services (Aisha El-safty)
  • Middlesex University
      • Mathematical modelling of vertical handover (TBVH) and the Stream Bundle Layer for Downward QoS (Fatema Shaikh)
      • Transport protocol and network architecture issues in Peripheral networks (Glenford Mapp)
group so far1
Group so far
  • University of Sao Paulo (ICMC San Carlos)
      • Ontological services for vertical handover
      • SoHand Middleware (Edson Moreira and Renata Vanni)
  • University of Trinidad and Tobago (UTT)
      • Service platform for Y-Comm (Wayne Butcher)
  • Loughborough University
      • Security Framework in Y-Comm (Raphael Phan)
  • Dartmouth College (USA)
      • Intelligent Physical Spaces(Andrew Campbell)
  • St Andrews University?
lots of interaction
Lots of Interaction
  • Y-Comm Forum Day
    • 2nd one was held on 2nd July at Cambridge
  • Building a global research network is new
    • Visit to Brazil:- key to establishing global collaboration
  • Journal Paper on Y-Comm
      • Submitted to IEEE/ACM TON
    • URL for Y-Comm White Papers
      • http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/research/dtg/?userid=gem11
new plans at middlesex
New Plans at Middlesex
  • Develop a small Y-Comm testbed at Middlesex
      • Go further than the Cambridge Testbed
  • Include Industrial Partners
      • Vodafone, CRFS Limited, Univirtua
  • Involve the MUBS
      • Look for a new business model for Y-Comm
  • Host the Y-Comm Research Web Page
        • http://www.mdx.ac.uk/eis/research/groups/YComm.asp
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