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D aily G rammar P ractice A Grammar Program That Makes Sense Why Grammar? Colleges and technical schools say that students aren’t prepared for the demands of academic writing.

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Daily Grammar Practice

A Grammar Program That Makes Sense


Why grammar l.jpg
Why Grammar?

  • Colleges and technical schools say that students aren’t prepared for the demands of academic writing.


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Ezarik, M. (2003). Survey: K-12, higher ed grammar disconnect. (CurriculumUpdate: The latest developments in math, science, language arts and social studies). DistrictAdministration, 39(7), 46.


Why grammar4 l.jpg
Why Grammar? disconnect. (CurriculumUpdate: The latest developments in math, science, language arts and social studies).

  • Business leaders complain that employees can’t write grammatically correct documents.

  • We expect students to edit for grammatical and mechanical errors, but they can’t apply what they don’t understand.


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Why Grammar? disconnect. (CurriculumUpdate: The latest developments in math, science, language arts and social studies).

  • In order to help students write better and write correctly, we must all share a common lingo, and that lingo is grammar.


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l disconnect. (CurriculumUpdate: The latest developments in math, science, language arts and social studies). ie

rise

sit

intransitive


Why grammar7 l.jpg
Why Grammar? disconnect. (CurriculumUpdate: The latest developments in math, science, language arts and social studies).

  • A student who understands the nuts and bolts of a language can use that language more effectively.

  • Students need to know grammar concepts for standardized tests such as exit exams and the SAT.


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George Hillocks and Michael Smith (1991) argue that “the teaching of school grammar has little or no effect on students” and that grammar instruction wastes valuable time that could be better spent on writing instruction.

Hillocks, G., Jr., & Smith, M. W. (1991). Grammar and usage. In J. Flood, J. M. Jensen, D. Lapp, & J. R. Squire (Eds.), Handbook of research on teaching the English language arts (591-603). New York: Macmillan.


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Why Daily Grammar Practice? teaching of school grammar has little or no effect on students” and that grammar instruction wastes valuable time that could be better spent on writing instruction.

  • Works like a daily grammar vitamin


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The Vitamin Analogy teaching of school grammar has little or no effect on students” and that grammar instruction wastes valuable time that could be better spent on writing instruction.

  • Learning through grammar unit: taking a whole bottle of vitamins at once.

  • Learning grammar in context or through daily correct-a-sentence: taking random vitamins at random times but not getting a multi-vitamin every day.

  • Learning through whole language: eating vegetables and hoping you get what you need.


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The Vitamin Analogy teaching of school grammar has little or no effect on students” and that grammar instruction wastes valuable time that could be better spent on writing instruction.

  • Learning grammar by trying to make it “fun”: eating candy

  • Learning grammar through DGP: getting a good multi-vitamin every day


Why daily grammar practice12 l.jpg
Why Daily Grammar Practice? teaching of school grammar has little or no effect on students” and that grammar instruction wastes valuable time that could be better spent on writing instruction.

  • Is more effective than other daily programs

  • Is effective at every grade level

  • Is effective for every ability level

  • Is effective for English Language Learners


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Research on the teaching of grammar to students learning a second language suggests that grammar “provides rules and general guidance that facilitate better understanding of the structures of the target language” (Gao, 2001).

Gao, C. Z. (2001). Second language learning and the teaching of grammar. Education, 122(2), 326-336.


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Why Daily Grammar Practice? second language suggests that grammar “provides rules and general guidance that facilitate better understanding of the structures of the target language” (Gao, 2001).

  • Is easy to incorporate into curriculum

  • Takes less time than traditional, less effective methods


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Rei Noguchi (1991) states that teachers should “make more time available for other writing activities by making less grammar do more.”

Noguchi, R. R. (1991). Grammar and the teaching of writing: Limits and possibilities. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.


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Why Daily Grammar Practice? time available for other writing activities by making less grammar do more.”

  • Forces grammar concepts into long-term memory.


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In order to apply skills that they have learned, students need to know the skills on a subconscious level. To achieve this understanding, they “must engage in practice that gradually becomes distributed, as opposed to massed” (Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, 2001).

Marzano, R. J., Pickering, D. J., & Pollock, J. E. (2001). Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.


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Why Daily Grammar Practice? need to know the skills on a subconscious level. To achieve this understanding, they “must engage in practice that gradually becomes

  • Enables learners to apply grammar concepts to their writing

  • Follows a logical progression at each grade level and from first grade through college

  • Breaks concepts into small parts while helping learners to see how all parts work together


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Students “struggle to understand concepts in isolation, to learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

Brooks, J. G., & Brooks, M. G. (1993). In search of understanding: The case for constructivist classrooms. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.


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Why Daily Grammar Practice? learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

  • Eliminates the need for tedious grammar exercises

  • Complements all types of writing instruction


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The DGP Process learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

  • Monday: Identify parts of speech


The dgp process23 l.jpg
The DGP Process learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

  • Monday: Identify parts of speech

  • Tuesday: Identify sentence functions


The dgp process24 l.jpg
The DGP Process learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

  • Monday: Identify parts of speech

  • Tuesday: Identify sentence functions

  • Wednesday: Identify clauses and sentence type


The dgp process25 l.jpg
The DGP Process learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

  • Monday: Identify parts of speech

  • Tuesday: Identify sentence functions

  • Wednesday: Identify clauses and sentence type

  • Thursday: Add punctuation and capitalization


The dgp process26 l.jpg
The DGP Process learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

  • Monday: Identify parts of speech

  • Tuesday: Identify sentence functions

  • Wednesday: Identify clauses and sentence type

  • Thursday: Add punctuation and capitalization

  • Friday: Diagram the sentence


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Week 27 learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

Monday


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1 nom learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

pron

av past

rel pron

art

n

N

hv

we read the novel the giver which was

written by lois lowry and then we wrote

an essay about it

av past

1 nom pron

av/past

prep

N

cc

adv

3 obj pron

art

n

prep


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Week 27 learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

Tuesday


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s learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

v

t

do

app

s

we read the novel the giver which was

written by lois lowry and then we wrote

an essay about it

v

i

op

s

v

t

(

)

adv pp

do

op

( )

adj pp


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Week 27 learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

Wednesday


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ind learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

adj dep

[

we read the novel the giver which was

written by lois lowry and then we wrote

an essay about it

]

[

]

[

ind

]

cd-cx

declarative


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Week 27 learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

Thursday


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W learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

we read the novel the giver which was

written by lois lowry and then we wrote

an essay about it

T

G

________

,

L

L

,

.


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Week 27 learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

Friday


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We learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

(The Giver)

read

novel

the

which

was written

and

by

Lois Lowry

we

wrote

essay

an

then

about

it


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The DGP Process (Grade 2) learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

  • Identify nouns and pronouns

  • Identify adjectives and interjections

  • Identify subjects and verbs

  • Identify sentence purpose

  • Add punctuation and capitalization


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Week 1 learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

Monday


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P learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

P

jimmy and i saw jeffs

new bike


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Week 1 learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

Tuesday


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jimmy and i saw jeffs learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

new bike


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Week 1 learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

Wednesday


Slide45 l.jpg

A learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

jimmy and i saw jeffs

new bike


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Week 1 learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

Thursday


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jimmy and i saw jeffs learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

new bike

dec


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Week 1 learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

Friday


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learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

J

jimmy and i saw jeffs

new bike

I

J

.


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Scope and Sequence learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993). for first grade through collegebased on curriculum standards for 30 different states


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Grade 1 learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

  • Monday: Find each common noun, proper noun, possessive noun, and pronoun in the following sentence.

  • Tuesday: Find the adjectives and interjections in the following sentence. Use an arrow to show which word each adjective describes.

  • Wednesday: Find the verbs in the following sentence. Then underline the noun or pronoun that is doing the action.

  • Thursday: Identify the sentence purpose as declarative, exclamatory, imperative, or interrogative.

  • Friday: On a piece of paper, write this week’s sentence with correct capitalization and punctuation.


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Grade 2 learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

  • Monday: Identify each common noun, proper noun, possessive noun, and pronoun in the following sentence.

  • Tuesday: Identify the adjectives and interjections in the following sentence. Use an arrow to show which word each adjective describes.

  • Wednesday: Identify the action verbs and linking verbs in the following sentence. Then underline the simple subject once and the simple predicate twice.

  • Thursday: Identify the sentence purpose as declarative, exclamatory, imperative, or interrogative.

  • Friday: Write this week’s sentence with correct capitalization and punctuation.


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Grade 3 learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

  • Monday: Identify each common noun, proper noun, possessive noun, nominative pronoun, objective pronoun, and possessive pronoun in the following sentence.

  • Tuesday: Identify the interjections, adjectives, helping verbs, linking verbs, and action verbs in the following sentence. Use an arrow to show which word each adjective describes.

  • Wednesday: Identify the simple subject, simple predicate, complete subject, and complete predicate in the following sentence.

  • Thursday: Identify the sentence purpose as declarative, exclamatory, imperative, or interrogative.

  • Friday: Write this week’s sentence with correct capitalization and punctuation.


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Grade 4 learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

  • Monday: Identify each common noun, proper noun, possessive noun, nominative pronoun, objective pronoun, possessive pronoun, adjective, conjunction, and interjection.

  • Tuesday: Identify each verb and adverb. Then identify the tense of each verb.

  • Wednesday: Identify the simple and complete subject and the simple and complete predicate.

  • Thursday: Identify the sentence type as either simple or compound and the sentence purpose as declarative, imperative, interrogative, or exclamatory.

  • Friday: Write out this week’s sentence using correct capitalization and punctuation including end punctuation, commas, apostrophes, underlining, and quotation marks.


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Grade 5 learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

  • Monday: Identify each common noun, proper noun, nominative pronoun, objective pronoun, possessive pronoun, adjective, verb (including type and tense), adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection.

  • Tuesday: Identify the simple and complete subject, the simple and complete predicate, and any complements, prepositional phrases, and objects of prepositions.

  • Wednesday: Identify the sentence type as either simple or compound and the sentence purpose as declarative, imperative, interrogative, or exclamatory.

  • Thursday: Add capitalization and punctuation including end punctuation, commas, apostrophes, underlining, and quotation marks. 

  • Friday: Use this week’s sentence to fill in the following diagram structure:


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Grade 6 learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

  • Monday: Identify each word as noun (common, proper, possessive), pronoun (interrogative, possessive, nominative, objective, demonstrative, indefinite), verb (helping, linking, action, tense), adverb, adjective, preposition, conjunction (coordinating, subordinating, correlative), interjection, or article.

  • Tuesday: Identify sentence parts including subject (complete and simple), complete predicate, verb (transitive or intransitive), direct object, indirect object, predicate nominative, predicate adjective, appositive or appositive phrase, and prepositional phrase (adjective or adverb).

  • Wednesday: Identify each clause as independent or dependent; identify the sentence type as simple, compound, or complex; and identify the sentence purpose as declarative, imperative, interrogative, or exclamatory.

  • Thursday: Add capitalization and punctuation including end punctuation, commas, apostrophes, underlining, and quotation marks. 

  • Friday: Fill in the diagram structure using this week’s sentence.


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Grade 7 learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

  • Monday: Identify each word as noun (common, proper, possessive), pronoun (relative, interrogative, possessive, nominative, objective, demonstrative, indefinite, reflexive), verb (helping, linking, action, tense), adverb, adjective, article, preposition, conjunction (coordinating, subordinating, correlative), interjection, gerund, participle, or infinitive.

  • Tuesday: Identify sentence parts including subject (complete and simple), verb (complete and simple, transitive or intransitive), direct object, indirect object, predicate nominative, predicate adjective, appositive or appositive phrase, and prepositional phrase (adjective or adverb).

  • Wednesday: Identify each clause as independent, adjective dependent, or adverb dependent; identify the sentence type as simple, compound, or complex; and identify the sentence purpose as declarative, imperative, interrogative, or exclamatory.

  • Thursday: Add capitalization and punctuation including end punctuation, commas, semicolons, apostrophes, underlining, and quotation marks.

  • Friday: Diagram this week’s sentence.


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Grade 8 learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

  • Monday: Identify parts of speech including noun, pronoun (type and case), verb (type and tense), adverb, adjective, preposition, conjunction (type), gerund, participle, infinitive, and article.

  • Tuesday: Identify sentence parts including complete subject, simple subject, complete predicate, verb (transitive or intransitive), direct object, indirect object, predicate nominative, predicate adjective, appositive or appositive phrase, prepositional phrase (adjective or adverb), gerund phrase, infinitive phrase, participial phrase, object of preposition, object of infinitive, and object of gerund.

  • Wednesday: Identify clauses (independent, adverb dependent, adjective dependent, noun dependent), sentence type (simple, compound, complex, compound-complex), and sentence purpose (declarative, interrogative, imperative, exclamatory).

  • Thursday: Add capitalization and punctuation including end punctuation, commas, semicolons, apostrophes, underlining, and quotation marks.

  • Friday: Diagram the sentence.


Grade 9 l.jpg
Grade 9 learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

  • Monday: identify parts of speech: noun, pronoun (type and case), verb (type and tense), adverb, adjective, preposition, conjunction (type), gerund, participle, infinitive, article

  • Tuesday: identify sentence parts: subject, verb (transitive or intransitive), direct object, indirect object, predicate nominative, predicate adjective, appositive or appositive phrase, prepositional phrase (adjective or adverb), gerund phrase, infinitive phrase, participial phrase, object of preposition, object of infinitive, object of gerund, object of participle

  • Wednesday: identify clauses and sentence type: independent, adverb dependent, adjective dependent, noun dependent; simple, compound, complex, compound-complex

  • Thursday: add punctuation and capitalization: end punctuation, commas, semicolons, apostrophes, underlining, quotation marks

  • Friday: diagram the sentence


Grade 10 l.jpg
Grade 10 learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

  • Monday: identify parts of speech: noun, pronoun (type and case), verb (type and tense), adverb, adjective, preposition, conjunction (type), gerund, participle, infinitive, article

  • Tuesday: identify sentence parts: subject, verb (transitive or intransitive), direct object, indirect object, predicate nominative, predicate adjective, appositive or appositive phrase, prepositional phrase (adjective or adverb), gerund phrase, infinitive phrase, participial phrase, object of preposition, object of infinitive, object of gerund, object of participle

  • Wednesday: identify clauses and sentence type: independent, adverb dependent, adjective dependent, noun dependent; simple, compound, complex, compound-complex

  • Thursday: add punctuation and capitalization: end punctuation, commas, semicolons, apostrophes, underlining, quotation marks

  • Friday: diagram the sentence


Grade 11 l.jpg
Grade 11 learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

  • Monday: identify parts of speech: noun, pronoun (type and case), verb (type and tense), adverb, adjective, preposition, conjunction (type), gerund, participle, infinitive, article

  • Tuesday: identify sentence parts: subject, verb (transitive or intransitive), direct object, indirect object, predicate nominative, predicate adjective, appositive or appositive phrase, prepositional phrase (adjective or adverb), gerund phrase, infinitive phrase, participial phrase, object of preposition, object of infinitive, object of gerund, object of participle, objective complements

  • Wednesday: identify clauses and sentence type: independent, adverb dependent, adjective dependent, noun dependent; simple, compound, complex, compound-complex

  • Thursday: add punctuation and capitalization: end punctuation, commas, semicolons, apostrophes, underlining, quotation marks, colons, dashes, hyphens

  • Friday: diagram the sentence


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Grade 12 learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

  • Monday: identify parts of speech: noun, pronoun (type and case), verb (type and tense), adverb, adjective, preposition, conjunction (type), gerund, participle, infinitive, article

  • Tuesday: identify sentence parts: subject, verb (transitive or intransitive), direct object, indirect object, predicate nominative, predicate adjective, appositive or appositive phrase, prepositional phrase (adjective or adverb), gerund phrase, infinitive phrase, participial phrase, object of preposition, object of infinitive, object of gerund, object of participle, objective complement, subject of infinitive, absolute phrase

  • Wednesday: identify clauses and sentence type: independent, adverb dependent, adjective dependent, noun dependent; simple, compound, complex, compound-complex 

  • Thursday: add punctuation and capitalization: end punctuation, commas, semicolons, apostrophes, underlining, quotation marks, colons, dashes, hyphens

  • Friday: diagram the sentence


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College Level learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

  • Step One: identify parts of speech: noun, pronoun (type and case), verb (type and tense), adverb, adjective, preposition, conjunction (type), gerund, participle, infinitive, article

  • Step Two: identify sentence parts: subject, verb (transitive or intransitive), direct object, indirect object, predicate nominative, predicate adjective, appositive or appositive phrase, prepositional phrase (adjective or adverb), gerund phrase, infinitive phrase, participial phrase, object of preposition, object of infinitive, object of gerund, object of participle, objective complement, subject of infinitive, absolute phrase

  • Step Three: identify clauses and sentence type: independent, adverb dependent, adjective dependent, noun dependent; simple, compound, complex, compound-complex 

  • Step Four: add punctuation and capitalization: end punctuation, commas, semicolons, apostrophes, underlining, quotation marks, colons, dashes, hyphens

  • Step Five: diagram the sentence


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Motivating Students to Try learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

  • It’s practice, so there’s no pressure.

  • Your students know they don’t get grammar.

  • DGP won’t go away like a two-week grammar unit will.

  • DGP is served in small helpings.

  • Positive reinforcement works!


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Evaluating Student Progress learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

  • Pre-test and post-test


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Georgia Criterion-Referenced Competency Test learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

  • Kedron Elementary School third-graders

  • T=Total language arts

  • SCR=Sentence construction and revision

  • GM=Grammar and mechanics


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Georgia Criterion-Referenced Competency Test learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

  • Kedron Elementary School students

  • T=Total language arts

  • SCR=Sentence construction and revision

  • GM=Grammar and mechanics


Pre test and post test results l.jpg
Pre-test and Post-test Results learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

  • 44 students tested

  • Grade 9 pre-test average: 71.4

  • Grade 9 post-test average: 90.1 (+19.7)

  • Grade 10 pre-test average: 88.7 (-1.4)


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Pre-test and Post-test Results learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

  • 102 eighth-graders tested

  • Average pre-test score: 69.1

  • Average post-test score without DGP: 73.6 (+4.5)

  • Average post-test score with DGP: 89.9 (+20.8)


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Evaluating Student Progress learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

  • Pre-test and post-test

  • Daily sentences


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Evaluating Student Progress learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

  • Pre-test and post-test

  • Daily sentences

  • Application of concepts


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Evaluating Student Progress learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

  • Pre-test and post-test

  • Daily sentences

  • Application of concepts

  • DGP quiz


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Warnings learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

  • You must make DGP a priority every day.

  • Don’t let yourself get discouraged.

  • The daily habit of doing DGP will take a couple of weeks to instill.

  • You must know grammar well to teach it well.

  • You have to use the lingo when you talk about writing.


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DGP Plus: learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993). Building Stronger Writers


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Super Sentences learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

My friend got a puppy.


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No Adjectives Allowed learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).


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www.dgppublishing.com learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

[email protected]


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