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D aily G rammar P ractice A Grammar Program That Makes Sense Why Grammar? Colleges and technical schools say that students aren’t prepared for the demands of academic writing.

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slide1

Daily Grammar Practice

A Grammar Program That Makes Sense

why grammar
Why Grammar?
  • Colleges and technical schools say that students aren’t prepared for the demands of academic writing.
slide3

Ezarik, M. (2003). Survey: K-12, higher ed grammar disconnect. (CurriculumUpdate: The latest developments in math, science, language arts and social studies). DistrictAdministration, 39(7), 46.

why grammar4
Why Grammar?
  • Business leaders complain that employees can’t write grammatically correct documents.
  • We expect students to edit for grammatical and mechanical errors, but they can’t apply what they don’t understand.
why grammar5
Why Grammar?
  • In order to help students write better and write correctly, we must all share a common lingo, and that lingo is grammar.
slide6

lie

rise

sit

intransitive

why grammar7
Why Grammar?
  • A student who understands the nuts and bolts of a language can use that language more effectively.
  • Students need to know grammar concepts for standardized tests such as exit exams and the SAT.
slide8

George Hillocks and Michael Smith (1991) argue that “the teaching of school grammar has little or no effect on students” and that grammar instruction wastes valuable time that could be better spent on writing instruction.

Hillocks, G., Jr., & Smith, M. W. (1991). Grammar and usage. In J. Flood, J. M. Jensen, D. Lapp, & J. R. Squire (Eds.), Handbook of research on teaching the English language arts (591-603). New York: Macmillan.

why daily grammar practice
Why Daily Grammar Practice?
  • Works like a daily grammar vitamin
the vitamin analogy
The Vitamin Analogy
  • Learning through grammar unit: taking a whole bottle of vitamins at once.
  • Learning grammar in context or through daily correct-a-sentence: taking random vitamins at random times but not getting a multi-vitamin every day.
  • Learning through whole language: eating vegetables and hoping you get what you need.
the vitamin analogy11
The Vitamin Analogy
  • Learning grammar by trying to make it “fun”: eating candy
  • Learning grammar through DGP: getting a good multi-vitamin every day
why daily grammar practice12
Why Daily Grammar Practice?
  • Is more effective than other daily programs
  • Is effective at every grade level
  • Is effective for every ability level
  • Is effective for English Language Learners
slide13

Research on the teaching of grammar to students learning a second language suggests that grammar “provides rules and general guidance that facilitate better understanding of the structures of the target language” (Gao, 2001).

Gao, C. Z. (2001). Second language learning and the teaching of grammar. Education, 122(2), 326-336.

why daily grammar practice14
Why Daily Grammar Practice?
  • Is easy to incorporate into curriculum
  • Takes less time than traditional, less effective methods
slide15

Rei Noguchi (1991) states that teachers should “make more time available for other writing activities by making less grammar do more.”

Noguchi, R. R. (1991). Grammar and the teaching of writing: Limits and possibilities. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

why daily grammar practice16
Why Daily Grammar Practice?
  • Forces grammar concepts into long-term memory.
slide17

In order to apply skills that they have learned, students need to know the skills on a subconscious level. To achieve this understanding, they “must engage in practice that gradually becomes distributed, as opposed to massed” (Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, 2001).

Marzano, R. J., Pickering, D. J., & Pollock, J. E. (2001). Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

why daily grammar practice18
Why Daily Grammar Practice?
  • Enables learners to apply grammar concepts to their writing
  • Follows a logical progression at each grade level and from first grade through college
  • Breaks concepts into small parts while helping learners to see how all parts work together
slide19

Students “struggle to understand concepts in isolation, to learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

Brooks, J. G., & Brooks, M. G. (1993). In search of understanding: The case for constructivist classrooms. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

why daily grammar practice20
Why Daily Grammar Practice?
  • Eliminates the need for tedious grammar exercises
  • Complements all types of writing instruction
the dgp process
The DGP Process
  • Monday: Identify parts of speech
the dgp process23
The DGP Process
  • Monday: Identify parts of speech
  • Tuesday: Identify sentence functions
the dgp process24
The DGP Process
  • Monday: Identify parts of speech
  • Tuesday: Identify sentence functions
  • Wednesday: Identify clauses and sentence type
the dgp process25
The DGP Process
  • Monday: Identify parts of speech
  • Tuesday: Identify sentence functions
  • Wednesday: Identify clauses and sentence type
  • Thursday: Add punctuation and capitalization
the dgp process26
The DGP Process
  • Monday: Identify parts of speech
  • Tuesday: Identify sentence functions
  • Wednesday: Identify clauses and sentence type
  • Thursday: Add punctuation and capitalization
  • Friday: Diagram the sentence
slide28

Week 27

Monday

slide29

1 nom

pron

av past

rel pron

art

n

N

hv

we read the novel the giver which was

written by lois lowry and then we wrote

an essay about it

av past

1 nom pron

av/past

prep

N

cc

adv

3 obj pron

art

n

prep

slide30

Week 27

Tuesday

slide31

s

v

t

do

app

s

we read the novel the giver which was

written by lois lowry and then we wrote

an essay about it

v

i

op

s

v

t

(

)

adv pp

do

op

( )

adj pp

slide32

Week 27

Wednesday

slide33

ind

adj dep

[

we read the novel the giver which was

written by lois lowry and then we wrote

an essay about it

]

[

]

[

ind

]

cd-cx

declarative

slide34

Week 27

Thursday

slide35

W

we read the novel the giver which was

written by lois lowry and then we wrote

an essay about it

T

G

________

,

L

L

,

.

slide36

Week 27

Friday

slide37

We

(The Giver)

read

novel

the

which

was written

and

by

Lois Lowry

we

wrote

essay

an

then

about

it

the dgp process grade 2
The DGP Process (Grade 2)
  • Identify nouns and pronouns
  • Identify adjectives and interjections
  • Identify subjects and verbs
  • Identify sentence purpose
  • Add punctuation and capitalization
slide40

Week 1

Monday

slide41

P

P

jimmy and i saw jeffs

new bike

slide42

Week 1

Tuesday

slide44

Week 1

Wednesday

slide45

A

jimmy and i saw jeffs

new bike

slide46

Week 1

Thursday

slide48

Week 1

Friday

slide49

J

jimmy and i saw jeffs

new bike

I

J

.

slide51

Scope and Sequencefor first grade through collegebased on curriculum standards for 30 different states

grade 1
Grade 1
  • Monday: Find each common noun, proper noun, possessive noun, and pronoun in the following sentence.
  • Tuesday: Find the adjectives and interjections in the following sentence. Use an arrow to show which word each adjective describes.
  • Wednesday: Find the verbs in the following sentence. Then underline the noun or pronoun that is doing the action.
  • Thursday: Identify the sentence purpose as declarative, exclamatory, imperative, or interrogative.
  • Friday: On a piece of paper, write this week’s sentence with correct capitalization and punctuation.
grade 2
Grade 2
  • Monday: Identify each common noun, proper noun, possessive noun, and pronoun in the following sentence.
  • Tuesday: Identify the adjectives and interjections in the following sentence. Use an arrow to show which word each adjective describes.
  • Wednesday: Identify the action verbs and linking verbs in the following sentence. Then underline the simple subject once and the simple predicate twice.
  • Thursday: Identify the sentence purpose as declarative, exclamatory, imperative, or interrogative.
  • Friday: Write this week’s sentence with correct capitalization and punctuation.
grade 3
Grade 3
  • Monday: Identify each common noun, proper noun, possessive noun, nominative pronoun, objective pronoun, and possessive pronoun in the following sentence.
  • Tuesday: Identify the interjections, adjectives, helping verbs, linking verbs, and action verbs in the following sentence. Use an arrow to show which word each adjective describes.
  • Wednesday: Identify the simple subject, simple predicate, complete subject, and complete predicate in the following sentence.
  • Thursday: Identify the sentence purpose as declarative, exclamatory, imperative, or interrogative.
  • Friday: Write this week’s sentence with correct capitalization and punctuation.
grade 4
Grade 4
  • Monday: Identify each common noun, proper noun, possessive noun, nominative pronoun, objective pronoun, possessive pronoun, adjective, conjunction, and interjection.
  • Tuesday: Identify each verb and adverb. Then identify the tense of each verb.
  • Wednesday: Identify the simple and complete subject and the simple and complete predicate.
  • Thursday: Identify the sentence type as either simple or compound and the sentence purpose as declarative, imperative, interrogative, or exclamatory.
  • Friday: Write out this week’s sentence using correct capitalization and punctuation including end punctuation, commas, apostrophes, underlining, and quotation marks.
grade 5
Grade 5
  • Monday: Identify each common noun, proper noun, nominative pronoun, objective pronoun, possessive pronoun, adjective, verb (including type and tense), adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection.
  • Tuesday: Identify the simple and complete subject, the simple and complete predicate, and any complements, prepositional phrases, and objects of prepositions.
  • Wednesday: Identify the sentence type as either simple or compound and the sentence purpose as declarative, imperative, interrogative, or exclamatory.
  • Thursday: Add capitalization and punctuation including end punctuation, commas, apostrophes, underlining, and quotation marks. 
  • Friday: Use this week’s sentence to fill in the following diagram structure:
grade 6
Grade 6
  • Monday: Identify each word as noun (common, proper, possessive), pronoun (interrogative, possessive, nominative, objective, demonstrative, indefinite), verb (helping, linking, action, tense), adverb, adjective, preposition, conjunction (coordinating, subordinating, correlative), interjection, or article.
  • Tuesday: Identify sentence parts including subject (complete and simple), complete predicate, verb (transitive or intransitive), direct object, indirect object, predicate nominative, predicate adjective, appositive or appositive phrase, and prepositional phrase (adjective or adverb).
  • Wednesday: Identify each clause as independent or dependent; identify the sentence type as simple, compound, or complex; and identify the sentence purpose as declarative, imperative, interrogative, or exclamatory.
  • Thursday: Add capitalization and punctuation including end punctuation, commas, apostrophes, underlining, and quotation marks. 
  • Friday: Fill in the diagram structure using this week’s sentence.
grade 7
Grade 7
  • Monday: Identify each word as noun (common, proper, possessive), pronoun (relative, interrogative, possessive, nominative, objective, demonstrative, indefinite, reflexive), verb (helping, linking, action, tense), adverb, adjective, article, preposition, conjunction (coordinating, subordinating, correlative), interjection, gerund, participle, or infinitive.
  • Tuesday: Identify sentence parts including subject (complete and simple), verb (complete and simple, transitive or intransitive), direct object, indirect object, predicate nominative, predicate adjective, appositive or appositive phrase, and prepositional phrase (adjective or adverb).
  • Wednesday: Identify each clause as independent, adjective dependent, or adverb dependent; identify the sentence type as simple, compound, or complex; and identify the sentence purpose as declarative, imperative, interrogative, or exclamatory.
  • Thursday: Add capitalization and punctuation including end punctuation, commas, semicolons, apostrophes, underlining, and quotation marks.
  • Friday: Diagram this week’s sentence.
grade 8
Grade 8
  • Monday: Identify parts of speech including noun, pronoun (type and case), verb (type and tense), adverb, adjective, preposition, conjunction (type), gerund, participle, infinitive, and article.
  • Tuesday: Identify sentence parts including complete subject, simple subject, complete predicate, verb (transitive or intransitive), direct object, indirect object, predicate nominative, predicate adjective, appositive or appositive phrase, prepositional phrase (adjective or adverb), gerund phrase, infinitive phrase, participial phrase, object of preposition, object of infinitive, and object of gerund.
  • Wednesday: Identify clauses (independent, adverb dependent, adjective dependent, noun dependent), sentence type (simple, compound, complex, compound-complex), and sentence purpose (declarative, interrogative, imperative, exclamatory).
  • Thursday: Add capitalization and punctuation including end punctuation, commas, semicolons, apostrophes, underlining, and quotation marks.
  • Friday: Diagram the sentence.
grade 9
Grade 9
  • Monday: identify parts of speech: noun, pronoun (type and case), verb (type and tense), adverb, adjective, preposition, conjunction (type), gerund, participle, infinitive, article
  • Tuesday: identify sentence parts: subject, verb (transitive or intransitive), direct object, indirect object, predicate nominative, predicate adjective, appositive or appositive phrase, prepositional phrase (adjective or adverb), gerund phrase, infinitive phrase, participial phrase, object of preposition, object of infinitive, object of gerund, object of participle
  • Wednesday: identify clauses and sentence type: independent, adverb dependent, adjective dependent, noun dependent; simple, compound, complex, compound-complex
  • Thursday: add punctuation and capitalization: end punctuation, commas, semicolons, apostrophes, underlining, quotation marks
  • Friday: diagram the sentence
grade 10
Grade 10
  • Monday: identify parts of speech: noun, pronoun (type and case), verb (type and tense), adverb, adjective, preposition, conjunction (type), gerund, participle, infinitive, article
  • Tuesday: identify sentence parts: subject, verb (transitive or intransitive), direct object, indirect object, predicate nominative, predicate adjective, appositive or appositive phrase, prepositional phrase (adjective or adverb), gerund phrase, infinitive phrase, participial phrase, object of preposition, object of infinitive, object of gerund, object of participle
  • Wednesday: identify clauses and sentence type: independent, adverb dependent, adjective dependent, noun dependent; simple, compound, complex, compound-complex
  • Thursday: add punctuation and capitalization: end punctuation, commas, semicolons, apostrophes, underlining, quotation marks
  • Friday: diagram the sentence
grade 11
Grade 11
  • Monday: identify parts of speech: noun, pronoun (type and case), verb (type and tense), adverb, adjective, preposition, conjunction (type), gerund, participle, infinitive, article
  • Tuesday: identify sentence parts: subject, verb (transitive or intransitive), direct object, indirect object, predicate nominative, predicate adjective, appositive or appositive phrase, prepositional phrase (adjective or adverb), gerund phrase, infinitive phrase, participial phrase, object of preposition, object of infinitive, object of gerund, object of participle, objective complements
  • Wednesday: identify clauses and sentence type: independent, adverb dependent, adjective dependent, noun dependent; simple, compound, complex, compound-complex
  • Thursday: add punctuation and capitalization: end punctuation, commas, semicolons, apostrophes, underlining, quotation marks, colons, dashes, hyphens
  • Friday: diagram the sentence
grade 12
Grade 12
  • Monday: identify parts of speech: noun, pronoun (type and case), verb (type and tense), adverb, adjective, preposition, conjunction (type), gerund, participle, infinitive, article
  • Tuesday: identify sentence parts: subject, verb (transitive or intransitive), direct object, indirect object, predicate nominative, predicate adjective, appositive or appositive phrase, prepositional phrase (adjective or adverb), gerund phrase, infinitive phrase, participial phrase, object of preposition, object of infinitive, object of gerund, object of participle, objective complement, subject of infinitive, absolute phrase
  • Wednesday: identify clauses and sentence type: independent, adverb dependent, adjective dependent, noun dependent; simple, compound, complex, compound-complex 
  • Thursday: add punctuation and capitalization: end punctuation, commas, semicolons, apostrophes, underlining, quotation marks, colons, dashes, hyphens
  • Friday: diagram the sentence
college level
College Level
  • Step One: identify parts of speech: noun, pronoun (type and case), verb (type and tense), adverb, adjective, preposition, conjunction (type), gerund, participle, infinitive, article
  • Step Two: identify sentence parts: subject, verb (transitive or intransitive), direct object, indirect object, predicate nominative, predicate adjective, appositive or appositive phrase, prepositional phrase (adjective or adverb), gerund phrase, infinitive phrase, participial phrase, object of preposition, object of infinitive, object of gerund, object of participle, objective complement, subject of infinitive, absolute phrase
  • Step Three: identify clauses and sentence type: independent, adverb dependent, adjective dependent, noun dependent; simple, compound, complex, compound-complex 
  • Step Four: add punctuation and capitalization: end punctuation, commas, semicolons, apostrophes, underlining, quotation marks, colons, dashes, hyphens
  • Step Five: diagram the sentence
motivating students to try
Motivating Students to Try
  • It’s practice, so there’s no pressure.
  • Your students know they don’t get grammar.
  • DGP won’t go away like a two-week grammar unit will.
  • DGP is served in small helpings.
  • Positive reinforcement works!
evaluating student progress
Evaluating Student Progress
  • Pre-test and post-test
georgia criterion referenced competency test
Georgia Criterion-Referenced Competency Test
  • Kedron Elementary School third-graders
  • T=Total language arts
  • SCR=Sentence construction and revision
  • GM=Grammar and mechanics
georgia criterion referenced competency test68
Georgia Criterion-Referenced Competency Test
  • Kedron Elementary School students
  • T=Total language arts
  • SCR=Sentence construction and revision
  • GM=Grammar and mechanics
pre test and post test results
Pre-test and Post-test Results
  • 44 students tested
  • Grade 9 pre-test average: 71.4
  • Grade 9 post-test average: 90.1 (+19.7)
  • Grade 10 pre-test average: 88.7 (-1.4)
pre test and post test results70
Pre-test and Post-test Results
  • 102 eighth-graders tested
  • Average pre-test score: 69.1
  • Average post-test score without DGP: 73.6 (+4.5)
  • Average post-test score with DGP: 89.9 (+20.8)
evaluating student progress71
Evaluating Student Progress
  • Pre-test and post-test
  • Daily sentences
evaluating student progress73
Evaluating Student Progress
  • Pre-test and post-test
  • Daily sentences
  • Application of concepts
evaluating student progress74
Evaluating Student Progress
  • Pre-test and post-test
  • Daily sentences
  • Application of concepts
  • DGP quiz
warnings
Warnings
  • You must make DGP a priority every day.
  • Don’t let yourself get discouraged.
  • The daily habit of doing DGP will take a couple of weeks to instill.
  • You must know grammar well to teach it well.
  • You have to use the lingo when you talk about writing.
super sentences

Super Sentences

My friend got a puppy.

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