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The Context for the Emergence of the Profession Important cultural influences on the emerging sport, fitness, and physical education professions: 1)The decline of religious opposition to sport and exercise. 2)Immigration 3)Industrialization 4)Urbanization

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The Context for the Emergence of the Profession

  • Important cultural influences on the emerging sport, fitness, and

  • physical education professions:

  • 1)The decline of religious opposition to sport and exercise.

  • 2)Immigration

  • 3)Industrialization

  • 4)Urbanization

  • 5)Transportation and Communication

  • 6)Education

  • 7)Intellectual Climate


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The rise of modern sport

  • Allen Guttmann’s model defines modern sport being distinguished by the following:

  • Secularism

  • Equality

  • Specialization

  • Rationalization

  • Bureaucracy

  • Quantification

  • Records


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The rise of modern sport

  • Another model by Melvin Adelman (1820-1870) suggests the following:

  • Organization

  • Rules

  • Competition

  • Role differentiation

  • Public information

  • Statistics and records


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The rise of modern sport

  • The growth of modern sport developed in Britain and Europe between 1850 –1900. Three particular trends developed- the continuation of the class dichotomy moral virtues); the origins of organized competitive sport, as opposed to informal or folk sports; and the revival of the Olympic Games under Baron Pierre de Coubertin in 1896.


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Muscular Christianity

  • T.C. Sanders probably coined the term “muscular Christianity” in 1857, though that “ideal of manliness and the association of physical prowess with moral virtue” were promoted widely by the writings of Charles Kingsley.

  • Sports education was encouraged as moral education, a character building experience. The goal was not victory; indeed, ”the educational value of defeat and failure…. Was the recurrent theme in Victorian England.”


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Muscular Christianity

  • These values were played out in the English public (Private) schools at Uppingham, Marlborough and Harrow. The values encouraged included the taking part, and in striving for victory, rather than victory alone. Competition was encouraged on the moral grounds that games were a preparation for life. These areas were as follows: respect for others, patient endurance, unflagging courage, self-reliance, and self-control, vigor and decision of character. This form of physical education became very popular in England and the United States from 1850-1900.


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European sporting development

  • During this time (1850-1900) there was relative peace in Europe and sporting organizations were beginning to develop.

  • Growth of University sports

  • Popularity of sport and hence spectators became participants

  • Development of sports clubs

  • National organizations and championship s develop from the clubs.

  • Common national and international rules developed from this competition

  • National and international standards were recorded.


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Rebirth of the Olympic games

  • In Greece in 1859-1889 Evanglesi Zappas held a series of Greek Olympics. Similar events called Olympics were also held in Sweden (1834), Canada (1844), United States (1893) and England for over forty tears after 1850.

  • Coubertin attended the English Olympics in 1890 and was impressed by the ideals of the British Public School system and lamented that France was a weak nation due to a lack of exercise. Through considerable effort he organized an Olympic committee (of wealthy men) and held the first Olympics in 1896 on Easter Sunday, in Athens.


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The modern Olympic Games

  • The modern Olympic games epitomize the political and social implications in sport.

  • 1948 London:Japanese and Germans denied their medals. Israel denied entry. Russians did not compete.

  • 1952 Helsinki:The cold war games. Russians compete for the first time since 1912.

  • China refused to compete due to Taiwan known as the Peoples Republic of China.


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The modern Olympic Games

  • 1956 Melbourne:The crisis Olympics. Suez Canal, Hungarian invasion by Russian tanks, Indochina war, S. Africa apartheid, Rebellion wars in Kenya, and riots in Poland against the Russians. Netherlands, Spain withdrew over the Hungarian invasion. China boycotted over the Taiwan issue still.

  • 1960 Rome:Violence in Southeast Asia, S. Korea, Cuban revolution and heightened tension between America and the Soviet Union with the shooting down of Francis Powers a CIA agent on a mission over Russia on May 1, 1960. The Italians separated the American and Russian athletes in the Olympic village.


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The modern Olympic Games

  • 1964 Tokyo:Growing involvement of America in the Vietnam war, the North Korean were asked to return home for competing in unofficial sanctioned games in Indonesia. Bitter controversy of trying to have a united Germany.

  • 1968 Mexico City: Political activism of Tommie Smith and John Carlos. S. Africa and Rhodesia where barred from the games. Student riots from Mexican students.

  • 1972 Munich:Vietnam War with China and Russia supplying Hanoi. Britain was plagued with IRA terrorism. Rhodesia competed under a British flag. The Munich massacre – eleven Israelis, five Arab terrorists and one German policeman.


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The modern Olympic Games

  • 1976 Montreal:Taiwan issue. New Zealand Rugby tour of S. Africa. Soviet defections.

  • Moscow 1980:US boycott. Tax exemption for the USOC for compliance.

  • Los Angles 1984:Soviet boycott. LA’s business deal with the IOC.

  • Seoul 1988:NBC and S. Korea. Security concerns with N. Korea. Ben Johnson. Payment from countries for Gold medals.

  • Barcelona 1992:Dream team. Successful Olympics politically.

  • Atlanta 1996:Commercialism. Drug testing.


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The modern Olympic Games

  • Sydney 2000 A brilliant games, but still overshadowed by drug accusations.

  • Athens 2004 A move in the right direction in reference to drug testing.

  • What will Beijing 2008 bring? What are some of the controversies surrounding the Beijing Olympics?


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The Physical Education Umbrella Spreads

  • In the 1900 - 1920's - Physical Education embraced a number of growing movements such as dance, YMCA/YWCA, playgrounds, recreation, outdoor education, sport, fitness, health education, and intramural sport.


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The Physical Education Umbrella Spreads

  • Writing in 1922 Clarence Rainwater said “ From provision of little children to that of all ages; from facilities operated in the summer only, to those maintained throughout the year; from outdoor equipment and activities only, to both outdoor and indoor facilities and events; from congested urban districts to both urban and rural communities; from philanthropic to community support and control; from “free” play and miscellaneous events to “directed” play with organized activities and correlated activities included manual, physical, aesthetic, social, and civic projects; from the provision of facilities to the definition of standards for the use of leisure; from “individual” interests to “group” and community activities.”


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Twenty years later, George Hjelte formulated five more transitions:

  • “From a “play” movement to a recreational movement; from a local municipal only, to a state and national movement; from programs detached from public education, to programs integrated with the educational curriculum and system; from organization limited to urban communities to the inclusive of suburban and rural areas as well; from an organization largely under quasi-public control with subsidies from public funds to full acceptance of recreational services as a public function.”


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Brief History of Sport Culture

Sociology of Sport

Canadian Sport Heroes


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History?

  • Social, political, economic and ideological factors have influenced sport

  • Issues: gender involvement, physical education, competition, obstacles to become recognized

  • Distinctive Periods

    • Pre 1840

    • 1840-1918

    • 1918-1961

    • 1961-present


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  • 1789- sport club development

  • 1840 – starting date of sport in central Canada

  • Significant developments and political influences

    • WWI, WWII

    • Passage of Acts and Bills

      • Fitness and Amateur Sport Act 1961

      • Beginning of the modern era of sport in Canada


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Pre 1840…..

  • Native Indian, Inuit and Voyageurs

  • Utilitarian approach

  • Organized sport – early 19th century

  • British troops

    • Influence and important role on the early development of sport in Canada

    • Funds for trophies and awards

    • Establish homeland sports

      • Cricket, rowing, track and field, horse racing and fox hunting


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Pre 1840’s

  • 1840 – Tandem clubs

    • Toronto, Montreal, Halifax, Quebec

  • Membership (military officers)

  • Foundation of organized sport development

  • Upper middle class, large urban areas

    • Social event vs. procedural competition

    • Predominantly WASPS

  • Montreal Curling Club (1807)


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Socially Elite busy socializing…

  • Working class sport interests

    • Taverns, saloons, drinking shanties

    • Billiards, wrestling, prize fights etc…

    • Bull baiting, dog fights, cockfighting

  • Excluded competitors

    • Working class tradesman

    • Native, African American, Irish and even Scot

  • Little inter-city competition

    • Travel

    • Only wealthy could afford to travel

      • Restricted to socially elite


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1840-1918

  • Canada dependant on fur trade

  • Upper and Lower Canada

  • Largest cities Montreal, Quebec, Toronto and Hamilton

  • 3.5 million population, 20% urban

  • Urbanization from 1867-1901-1921

  • Trades became important

    • farming, fishing and timber


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1840-1918 Advancements…

  • Technological development

    • Growth or urbanization

    • Industrialization

    • Changes in sport (1840-1918)

  • Transportation

    • Cheaper and special excursion rates

    • Sports interaction

    • CPR (1885)

  • Communication

    • Morse code 1842

    • Media and telegraph system – Bell 1874

    • Newspaper (early 19th century)


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Popular sports

  • Lacrosse

  • hockey

  • Cricket

  • Baseball (1870’s)

  • Dr. W.G. Beers – lacrosse rules

  • JGA Creighton – hockey rules

  • Communication advances – reporting of sports results

  • Emergency of national celebrities

    • Ned Hanlan (sculler)

    • Tommy Burns (heavyweight boxer)


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Montreal

  • Cradle or organized sport

  • Headquarters for British imperial forces

  • The Hunt Club (1829)

  • The Cricket Club (1929)

  • Tandem Club (1837)

  • Racquet Club (1839)

  • Montreal Olympic Club (1842)

  • Montreal Snow Shoe Club (1843)

  • Montreal Lacrosse Club (1856)

  • Montreal Amateur Athletic Association (MAAA)

    • MSSC, MLC and MBC (1881)

    • 10 Governing bodies in various sports


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Amateur or Pro?

  • Class distinction

    • One based on earning money

  • Canadian Amateur Athletic Association (1884)

  • “athletic war” 1906

  • CAAU formerly the CAAA

    • Amateur athletes not allowed to compete with or against professionals

    • “shamateurism”

  • AAF of C 1907 (Amateur Athletic Federation)


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CAAU

  • 1909

    • 900 clubs

    • 60000 additional members

    • Rejoining of AAF of C to the CAAU to become the Amateur Athletic Union of Canada (AAU of C)

    • Free competition amoung all competitors skill

  • 1914

    • 1300 clubs

    • 100,000 registered athletes


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War of 1914 – The Great War

  • Sports leagues ceased operations

  • Only attended games (few and far between) tickets were returned to charity

  • Sports thrived in the military

    • Mixing of amateurs and professionals as long as uniformed

    • Strengthened sport development

      • Increased female participation

      • Increased club memberships

      • Improved conditions for sport


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Women in Sport

  • Women involvement minimal

  • Leisure activities pursued by males:

    • Fishing, hunting, horse racing, canoeing, snowshoeing, lacrosse and cricket

  • Women were spectators and social participants

  • Medical opinion of sport and harm

  • Restrictive clothing


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Women in Sport

  • 1850 Amelia Bloomer

    • “bloomers”

    • Freedom of movement without loss of dignity

    • Horseback riding, snowshoeing and safety bicycle

  • Late 1800’s

    • Tennis, curling, golf, basketball, baseball and even hockey added

  • Still opposed to women in vigorous activity

    • Physical and emotional stresses of sport

    • Policies and procedures that limited demands

    • Set standards of competition

  • Women sport leaders and academics


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Women in Sport

  • After WWI women's participation in sport increased

  • 1920-30s – Golden Age for sport

  • Shorts and t-shirts

  • School involvement

  • More aggressive roles

  • Women’s Amateur Athletic Federation (1926)

  • Emergency of feminism (60’s-70s) more challenging boundaries of “what was acceptable”


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Women in Sport

  • “matchless six” – female track team

  • Edmonton Grads – basketball domination

  • Percy Page

  • Barbara Ann Scott(1948)

  • Marilyn Bell (1954)


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Aboriginals in Sport

  • Limited participation prior to 1918

  • “professionals” in lacrosse and snowshoeing

  • Special categories and ranks

  • Entertainment for white spectators

  • Tom Longboat (1908) distance runner subject to racial discrimination

  • Does this exist today?


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1918-1961

  • Roaring 20’s, Depression and WWII and Cold War (early stages)

  • Urbanization (1921 – 50% urban dwellers)

  • Technological and communication influence and development

    • Proliferation or professional sport

  • International federations (1950’s)

  • Professional sport gaining prestige while amateur sport difficulties


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1918-1961

  • NHL

  • American sport Heroes

    • Babe Ruth, Jack Dempsey, Red Grange, Bobby Jones

  • Hockey Night in Canada (Foster Hewitt)

  • Extended boundaries of sport coverage

  • 1950s – television for sports enthusiasts

  • 1952 – first Canadian televised hockey


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1918-1961

  • Sporting Events

    • Grey Cup

    • World Series

    • Davis Cup Tennis

  • Post 1961 – televisions greatest influence

  • Increase in automobiles

  • National and international championship games


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Canadian Athletes Involvement

  • Canada entered all summer Olympics since 1904

  • Winter Olympics since 1924

  • Pan American Games since 1955

  • Fitness and Amateur Sport Act (1961)

    • Bill C-131

    • Government involvement in sport and fitness


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Strathcona Trust Fund

  • Early 1900’s government promoted military through this fund

  • Physical training projects to maintain health

  • Funds helped to implement programs

    • National Fitness Act (1943)

    • Provincial-Recreation Program

  • 1958 – council brief that focused on sport and fitness issues


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  • CMA and CAHPER combined forces to lobby government

  • Fitness and Amateur Sport Act

    • Access to sport and fitness for all Canadians


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1961-2002-present

  • Advancements in technology, society and communications

  • Cold war ended, terrorism began…

  • CBC and other media

  • Hosting of Olympic games (1976 and 1988)

  • Stronger interest in American leagues

    • NFL, NBA, NHL

    • ‘cross border shifting’


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Promotion of Fitness and Sport

  • Fitness Act of 1961

  • Mass sport and physical fitness programs funding (early 60s)

  • 1969 Pierre Trudeau campaign speech

    • Linking sport with culture and promoting national unity

    • National unity symbol

  • Proposed Sports Policy for Canadians


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Promotion of Fitness and Sport

  • National Sport and Recreation Center

  • Hockey Canada

  • Sports Participation Canada

  • Coaching Association of Canada

  • Canadian Association for the Advancement of Women and Sport


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Questions

  • What are the characteristics of modern sport?

  • What are some of the characteristics of pre-modern sport?


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The modern profession

  • We have argued that the mind/body relationship is important to physical educators because, to a great extent, what we “know” and how we teach is culturally determined by the mind/body relationship.


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The modern profession

  • As we enter the new millennium, the experiential aspects of athletic participation and the resurgence of the Greek idea of pursuing individual excellence appears to be once again in vogue. Many of today’s athletes continue their quest for individual excellence with personal satisfaction as the reward, as opposed to medals and other prizes. Personal satisfaction in knowing that “I did my best” is all that is needed for many whom participate in physical activity. This may be described in Socrate’s terminology as “know thyself.”


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Preparing for the twenty-first century.

  • What are some of the skills that will be needed for the twenty-first century?

  • Broad knowledge base

  • Communication skills

  • Technical skills

  • Research skills

  • Job-hunting skills

  • Health and fitness

  • Focus


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The international scene

  • There are many international sports organizations that have a major impact on the social and practical implications of sport and physical education.

  • A major international organization in education is the World Confederation of Organizations of the teaching professions (WCOTP), founded in 1952. Education is promoted to further international understanding. This organization is linked with the United Nations. One of its members is the International Council on Health and Physical Education, and recreation (ICHPER).


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The international scene

  • The International Society for Comparative Physical Education and Sport (ISCPES) was established in 1960, in Munich, Germany. Its primary goal is to improve cooperation between all groups interested in physical education and sport and to interpret the cultural values of physical education and sport.

  • The international Olympic Academy was established 1961 to promote and maintain the ideals of the original Olympic Games. It is in Athens, Greece and is associated with the Hellenic Olympic Committee and the International Olympic Committee.


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The international scene

  • The International Association of Physical Education and Sport for Girls and Women (IAPESGW). It began in 1953 to bring together woman around the world who were working in physical education and sport.

  • The International Amateur Athletic Federation (IAAF) began in 1912 to encourage friendly nondiscriminatory sports competition between nations


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International Physical education programmes.

  • It is important to note that each nation has different educational goals, which dictate the emphasis in the physical education program. Some of these orientations are military fitness, competitive sports training, lifetime sports programs, cultural fitness and lifetime wellness programs.


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Germany

  • An example of European physical education programs is the Federal Republic of Germany. The physical education program is firmly tied to national sports bodies, which have strong national organizations to foster sports competition among the youth. The government sponsor many competitive events.

  • The educational system is decentralized, with each of the nation’s eleven states directing the physical education program in its own area. Daily play and instruction is recommended for the first two years of school and thereafter three hours weekly of gymnastics and play, with an additional two hours weekly of games and sports, in the form of either competition or sports clinics.


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Germany

  • At secondary level there are two schools: vocational and the professional school. P.E. in vocational schools is poor and in the professional schools it is often a lot less than the required standards.

  • Teachers of P.E. must be certified in two subjects, one of which must be physical education. The training is a three-year university degree.


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Russia

  • The former Soviet Union emphasized the total fitness concepts that develop a socially minded healthy citizen. Military fitness is also important for national defense. The other emphasis focuses on sports-training objectives.

  • The physical educational programs follow government guidelines. Daily activity physical education classes require ten minutes of in-place exercises at the start of every school day. Classes are split into exercises and sport type activities and then special technique work in a single sport.


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Russia

  • The school physical education program is strongly supplemented by other governmental programs such as summer camps, sport badge awards, and spartakiadas.

  • High standards are required for physical education teachers. Their entrance requirements include intellectual ability, physical fitness, degree of social adjustment, and leadership abilities. Coaches must be graduates from the physical education institutes.


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Japan

  • Japan received a great deal of US influence after the Second World War, which effected their physical educational programs.

  • The foundation of the Japanese program is total fitness (education of the whole person) including physical development, citizenship, and healthful leisure activities. Physical education is required in the schools from the elementary level through the university system.


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Japan

  • Students are required to attend school for 9 years. During the elementary school years, students have forty-five minutes of activities three times a week under the direction of their classroom teachers. At the junior and senior high schools, two or three fifty-minute classes are allotted per week to teach more advanced skills. Traditional Japanese sports and activities are also added at these levels. Some theoretical students are added to show the benefits of exercise and its place in an individuals life.

  • At the university level, four credits are required in physical education. Teachers must be certified through a four-year university programme.


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Kenya

  • Kenya has a similar system to England due to it once being a colony of the British Empire.

  • The physical education program is one of physical training (primarily calisthenics) but the emphasis today is to develop individual character. The broad program stress total fitness and the development of the whole person.

  • Kenyan physical educators are faced with a problem of having very limited resources so a broad based program is difficult. At the secondary level, each student must take activities in three areas, swimming and athletics (track and field), dance and games (including team sports). Kenya is seeking to establish itself in more international competition, to attract more adults and students into sport, provide leisure activities and locate athletic talent.


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Current issues in physical education and sport.

  • Current issues in physical education and sport.

  • Back to basics

  • Quality of education

  • Negative social changes

  • Proper educational practices

  • Place of sport in the educational process

  • Moral dilemmas in school


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Where is sport and physical education heading?

  • Daryl Siedentop suggests ten themes that he believes define the future of our field

  • Specialization or integration of the field.

  • The split between discipline and profession.

  • The growing activity and leisure industries.

  • Distributing the fields efforts more equitably

  • Wellness as the center of lifestyle education

  • A more broadly based (inclusive) sport culture.

  • Reemphasizing people skills in the human service professions

  • Gender equity in the field.

  • The success or failure of P.E. in schools.

  • Focusing on new populations


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Social trends

  • Growth of the underclass population

  • Growing economic inequality

  • Declining social conscience and cooperation

  • The new tribalism: growing ethnic conflict

  • Family instability

  • Growth of a world culture through the online world

  • Growth of a world techno-industrial economy

  • Changing leisure patterns

  • Growth of the now generation

  • Continuing ethical dilemmas


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Educational trends

  • Disagreement about educational priorities

  • Education for a technical world

  • The future curriculum: narrow or broad?

  • Changing educational priorities

  • Declining student knowledge levels

  • Changing school populations

  • Teacher education: specialist or generalist?

  • Whole-school involvement in teacher education

  • Higher education standards

  • Privatization of education


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Questions

  • What is learning?

  • How do people learn?

  • Is there a difference between learning and knowledge?

  • What should be taught in PE for elementary and high schools?

  • Make a list of comments about modern sport today for class discussion.


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