. Advocate for the explicit development of reading strategies that enable students to think and learn with textsExplicit teaching of informational text strategies will result in students' metacognition and self-regulated use.. Visible or Invisible?. Explicit instruction in reading informational text is referred to as the
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1. TEACHING STUDENTS TO READ INFORMATIONAL TEXT Reference:
What Research Has To Say About Reading Instruction, by Alan E. Farstrup (2002)
2. Advocate for the explicit development of reading strategies that enable students to think and learn with texts
Explicit teaching of informational text strategies will result in students’ metacognition and self-regulated use.
3. Visible or Invisible? Explicit instruction in reading informational text is referred to as the “visible aspects” of teaching reading.
Strategies that typify good teaching are referred to as the “invisible aspects” of teaching reading.
4. What does good teaching add? When good teaching strategies are used continuously in the classroom, reading and subject matter learning are seamless.
Language and literacy scaffold student’s learning.
5. Assumption Underlying Early Literacy Policies …once children learn to read, they will be able to use reading to learn for the rest of their lives
Problem with this assumption???
6. Early levels of literacy and advanced literacy skills require different levels of intervention.
Continual instruction in reading beyond the early grades is crucial.
7. Literacy for Adolescence Highly engaging electronic print is readily available.
There is a proliferation of both fiction and non-fiction print materials available on every topic imaginable.
8. Reading in content areas… Depends in a large degree on students’ ability to read independently and intelligently.
Good teaching must provide for the improvement and refinement of the reading, attitudes, habits, and skills that are needed in all school activities involving reading.
9. Every Teacher Is A Teacher of Reading!! But… recent research shows us that:
- content area teachers generally value the role that reading plays in learning
- yet, they fail to attend to reading in their own practices
10. Sharing the Task The responsibility for teaching reading is a shared one, belonging to all teachers.
Schools must provide teachers with reading specialist services ( resource support, current research, study time and support, teacher research support/ action research, Professional Learning Communities).
11. Three Instructional Paradigms During the past century, three paradigms have contributed to our current approach to teaching reading in content areas:
1. Reading and Study Skills Paradigm
2. Cognition and Learning Paradigm
3. Social Constructivist Paradigm
12. 1.The Reading and Study Skills Paradigm Focus from 1900’s to 1960’s was skills based.
Research focused on:
1. the identification of reading and study skills associated with each content area
2. the effects of various instructional variables on the acquisition of reading and study skills and learning in content areas.
13. Research Conclusions Some reading skills are common across subject areas.
* Some reading skills are specific to the content of the subject.
14. Two Approaches to Teaching Reading of Informational Text 1. Direct instructional approach
- teaching the reading is separate from the content and assumes that transfer to content areas will happen naturally
2. Functional instructional approach
- the teaching of reading is embedded in the context of content, using course materials
15. Studies Show… Teaching reading skills in conjunction with content helps students to increase their facility with the skills.
In the late 1960’s, strategies started to change to reflect our increasing awareness of cognitive development.
16. 2.The Cognition and Learning Paradigm Studies in the 1970’s and 1980’s, focused on the role of metacognition in reading.
Research related to:
- schema theory ( using prior knowledge to construct meaning)
- text structure
- strategic learning
17. SCHEMA THEORY Readers are in a better position to understand what they are reading when they use prior knowledge to construct meaning.
Schemata reflect the experiences, attitudes, values, and skills a reader brings to the text.
Schema activation requires readers to activate what they know and apply it to make sense of new text.
18. Activated Schemata Comprehension occurs when the reader
OR 2. builds new
schema for connecting to the new text information.
19. A “Good” Schema Match When the text and the reader’s schema match:
- text information is organized more efficiently
SO STUDENTS CAN:
- make inferences
- fill in knowledge gaps
- elaborate on the material
20. Text Structure Skilled readers actively search for the text structure that relates ideas hierarchically to differentiate between important and less important ideas in text.
Termed “strategic reading”
21. Good Readers Good readers are strategic:
- metacognitively aware ( regulate their comprehension strategies)
- knowledgeable about their own reading processes
- in control of reading activities ( have reading strategies to use)
- know what, how, when and why it is important to monitor what they are reading
22. The Strategic Reader Displays:
1. Self-knowledge – what they know about themselves as readers and learners
2. Task knowledge – what knowledge they have about reading tasks and the task at hand
3. Self-Monitoring and Regulation – ability to keep track of how well they are comprehending and to use new strategies when comprehension problems arise
23. Strategic Reading Ability Is related to the reader’s age.
Reflects the reader’s experience with reading.
OLDER STUDENTS ARE MORE STRATEGIC IN THEIR READING THAN YOUNGER STUDENTS.
GOOD READERS ARE MORE LIKELY TO USE METACOGNITIVE PROCESSES TO SELF-REGULATE COMPREHENSION STRATEGIES TO MAKE SENSE OF TEXT.
24. Comprehension Strategies That Relate to Cognitive Theory Prior knowledge activation
25. 3. Social Constructivist Paradigm * Learners construct knowledge from their minds through interaction with their environment.
Knowledge is not passively received from the teacher or text but is always under construction.
The social context of the classroom affects the way students interact with the teacher, the text, and one another.
26. STUDENTS LEARN WITH TEXT, NOT NECESSARILY FROM TEXT.
Through discussion and writing, students negotiate the meaning of text.
27. The Visible and Invisible Both implicit (in context) and explicit (strategy taught separately) strategies for teaching reading skills have value in constructing meaning.
28. Visible Teaching of Informational Text Reading A direct instructional approach
Skills and strategies are explicitly taught.
Either taught by a reading teacher or by a content area teacher
29. When instruction is visible and explicit… Students develop:
- strategies for self-regulation
- greater independence
- use mini-lessons to teach reading strategies
- explain, model, provide practice and application
30. Steps in Direct, Visible, and Explicit Reading Instruction Direct Instruction of the Strategy
- what the strategy is
- how to use it
- why it is important to use
- when it should be used
Demonstration of the Strategy
- model the strategy
- stop at key points to question, prompt, and mirror the thinking required to use the strategy
31. 3. Strategy Practice
- use easy text to practice the strategy
- discuss use of the strategy
4. Strategy Application
- apply the strategy in regular class assignments
- the teacher frames the assignment so that the new strategy will have to be used
32. Invisible Aspects of Content Area Reading * Has appeal for teachers because they do not “lose” time teaching reading, then having to address the subject content.
* Teaching of reading happens incidentally while addressing content.
33. Students can use reading strategies for comprehension Before reading
- to circumvent bad habits previously used
- to analyze the reading task ( e.g., purpose)
- to make sense of the text
- to question the author’s intent
- to challenge what doesn’t make sense to them
- to look for organization of the information ( e.g., cause/effect, comparison/ contrast, problem/ solution, sequence, main idea, detail)
- to extend and elaborate ideas read
- to share their thinking about the author’s ideas ( e.g., “go public”)
34. Nature of a READING Classroom Talking and “writing to learn” can be a springboard into reading.
Reading can be the basis for talking and writing.
Talk can be spontaneous.
Provides opportunities for students to respond personally and critically to ideas they encounter in text, through Socratic seminars.
35. SOCRATIC SEMINARS Purpose is to use talk as a way to construct meaning.
The teacher guides students’ learning through the artful use of questions.
Core questions lead to thoughtful discussions.
Students engage in reasoning, predicting, projecting and imagining.
36. Socratic Seminar Approach General Guidelines for Teachers:
1. Analyze the content of the text to be discussed ( e.g., major concept, insights, vocabulary, text cues, features)
2. Prepare a set of discussion questions that raise issues, probe, apply, and synthesize information.
37. 3. Arrange the room for a seminar by creating an inner circle ( for discussion) and an outer circle ( for the note takers).
4. Set 15 -30 minutes for the discussion; start with a core question.
5. End the discussion with a summary statement.
6. Conduct a 5 -10 minute debriefing session; focus on metacognitive questions.
7. Teacher leads the discussion to help students reconstruct the author’s meaning and to construct their own meaning of a central issue.
38. What Students Do During a Socratic Seminar Focus on the content of the text selection.
Listen to one another.
Outer circle students take notes about the discussion.
Inner circle students speak clearly to one another.
39. What Results Can Happen in a Socratic Seminar Classroom? A response-centered classroom
Values and fosters personal reactions to ideas found in texts
Students respond to and explore ideas.
Students write more and think more because the stakes are low ( no evaluation).
Writing can take the form of learning logs, double-entry journals, or response journals.
“Quickwrite” strategy is used to get ideas beyond recall on paper.
Point-of-view prompts require students to write from different perspectives.
40. CONCLUSIONS Teaching reading in the content area classroom does not require specialized teacher training.
Teaching reading does not diminish the role of the specialist subject teacher.
Teachers need to reflect on the strategies their students need to be successful in academic subjects.
41. THE GENERAL DEMANDS OF ALL NONFICTION TEXTS From: Teaching for Comprehending and Fluency, (Fountas & Pennell, 2006)
42. 1. READERS THINK WITHIN THE TEXT TO:
Search for and use a variety of information
Notice and extract information from illustrations and graphics
Notice and follow time sequences
Solve specialized or discipline specific words (history, geography, science, technology)
Get information from tables of content, headings, pronunciation guides, legends, indexes, footnotes, and references
43. 2. READERS THINK BEYOND THE TEXT TO:
Infer underlying reasons for events and actions
Bring background knowledge to understand the information presented
Gather information from underlying structures: chronological sequence, description, comparison/contrast, cause /effect, problem/solution
Integrate information from text and graphics
44. 3. READERS THINK ABOUT THE TEXT TO:
Notice how the text is organized to present information
Interpret underlying structures: chronological sequence, description, comparison/contrast, cause/effect; problem/solution
Make comparisons between the text and others on the same topic or subject
Critically evaluate the accuracy and authenticity of the text
Examine the authors credentials and evaluate his/her qualifications for writing the text
Notice how the writer has used language to make the text interesting to readers
45. DESIGN FEATURES OF INFORMATIONAL TEXTS Text Divisions:
Foreword and after word
Format of the whole text
Bullets and numbers
Type size, style (regular, boldface, italic, underlined)
Photographs (colour/black and white enlarged/zoomed
Paintings (acrylic, watercolour, pastel, oil)
Drawings (scale, labeled, colour/black and white, realistic/interpretive
Charts rows and columns
Diagrams (cutaways, cross sections, webs, trees, flowcharts)
Tables and graphs (bar, line, pie)
Timelines and cycles (horizontal, vertical, circular)
47. Organizational Tools and Sources of information
Table of Contents
Headings, subheadings, sub-subheadings
48. Analysis of NONFICTION Texts for the demands placed upon the reader For students to read effectively in the content areas, teachers need to be aware of and teach for these nonfiction text features to ensure student success
49. Genre: factual, biography, autobiography
Text Structure: the way the information is put together; density of ideas, clarity of concepts
Content: describes what information is in the text, how much familiar/unfamiliar content
Themes and ideas: implicit or explicit themes/ideas related to content, ease of understanding
Language/Literary Features: description, figurative language, symbolism, direct/indirect, signal words
50. Sentence Complexity: simple (subject/verb pattern, multiple items in a series, length & complexity of sentences, important information set off by dashes
Vocabulary: Technical (subject specific), concepts/words not defined in text, new/difficult words
Words: level of difficulty, multisyllable words, placenames that may be difficult,
Illustrations: photographs with informative information, maps, integrated with text, understandable graphics
Book and Print Features: # of pages, layout, organization, use of white space/shading, ease of access