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1950. Population Dynamics. (Chapter 10). Three main methods of estimation: Cohort life table Identify individuals born at same time and keep records from birth. Static life table Record age at death of individuals. Age distribution

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Population dynamics

1950

Population Dynamics

(Chapter 10)


Estimating patterns of survival

Three main methods of estimation:

Cohort life table

Identify individuals born at same time and keep records from birth.

Static life table

Record age at death of individuals.

Age distribution

Calculate difference in proportion of individuals in each age class.

Assumes differences from mortality.

Estimating Patterns of Survival


Survivorship curves

Type I: Majority of mortality occurs among older individuals.

Dall Sheep

Type II: Constant rate of survival throughout lifetime.

American Robins

Type III: High mortality among young, followed by high survivorship.

Sea Turtles

Survivorship Curves


Age distribution
Age Distribution

  • Age distribution of a population reflects its history of survival, reproduction, and growth potential.


Age distribution1
Age Distribution

  • Rio Grande Cottonwood populations (Populus deltoides wislizenii) are ….


Dynamic population in a variable climate
Dynamic Population in a Variable Climate

  • Grant and Grant studied Galapagos Finches.

  • Responsiveness of population age structure to environmental variation.


Blacknose dace rhinichthys atratulus south branch codorus creek
Blacknose dace (Rhinichthys atratulus)South Branch Codorus Creek


700 Million Years of Eating DNA:

A Conserved Competence Regulon in Gamma-Proteobacteria.

Dr. Andrew Cameron

Microbiology Department

University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.

Tuesday, March 6th, at 4:30 – 5:30 p.m.

Ruhl Student Center, Community Room

700 Million Years of Eating DNA:

A Conserved Competence Regulon in Gamma-Proteobacteria.

Dr. Andrew Cameron

Microbiology Department

University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.

Tuesday, March 6th, at 4:30 – 5:30 p.m.

Ruhl Student Center, Community Room


Rates of population change

Birth Rate: Number of young born per female; seeds per individual plant.

Fecundity Schedule: Tabulation of birth rates for females of different ages.

“Life Table” of survivorship per age grouping (see above) combined with fecundity schedule can be used to calculate net reproductive rates.

Rates of Population Change


Estimating rates for an annual plant

Phlox drummondii (phlox)

Ro = Net reproductive rate; Average number of seeds produced by an individual in a population over lifetime (“birth rate”).

Ro=∑ lxmx

X= Age interval in days.

lx = % pop. surviving to each age (x).

mx= Average number seeds produced by each individual in each age category.

Estimating Rates for an Annual Plant


Estimating rates for an annual plant1

Because P. drummondii has non-overlapping generations, we can estimate growth rate.

Geometric Rate of Increase (λ):

λ=N t+1 / Nt

N t+1 = Size of population at future time.

Nt = Size of population at some earlier time.

Estimating Rates for an Annual Plant


Estimating rates when generations overlap

Common Mud Turtle (K. subrubrum)

About half turtles nest each year.

Average generation time:

T = ∑ xlxmx / Ro

X= Age in years

Per Capita Rate of Increase:

r = ln Ro / T

ln = Base natural logarithms

Estimating Rates when Generations Overlap

fwie.fw.vt.edu/VHS/Kinosternon_subrubrum.htm



Dispersal

Africanized Honeybees

Honeybees (Apis melifera) evolved in Africa and Europe and have since differentiated into many locally adapted subspecies.

Africanized honeybees disperse much faster than European honeybees.

Within 30 years they occupied most of South America, Mexico, and all of Central America.

Dispersal



Collared doves

Collared Doves, Streptopelia decaocto, spread from Turkey into Europe after 1900.

Dispersal began suddenly.

Not influenced by humans.

Took place in small jumps.

45 km/yr

Collared Doves



Rapid changes in response to climate change

Tree species began to spread northward about 16,000 years ago following retreat of glaciers and warming climate.

Evidence found in preserved pollen in lake sediments.

Movement rate 100 - 400 m/yr.

Rapid Changes in Response to Climate Change


Rapid changes in response to climate change1
Rapid Changes in Response to Climate Change ago following retreat of glaciers and warming climate.


Dispersal in response to changing food supply

Holling ago following retreat of glaciers and warming climate. observed numerical responses to increased prey availability.

Increased prey density led to increased density of predators.

Birds moved.

Dispersal in Response to Changing Food Supply


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