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Nunavut. In Canada, Nunavut is considered a native territory. NATIVE TERRITORY: Inuit. Nunavut, on the roof of the world. Nunavut is a vast (big, spacious) territory. Inuit have been living there for 8 000 years.

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Nunavut, on the roof of the world

  • Nunavut is a vast (big, spacious) territory.

  • Inuit have been living there for 8 000 years.

  • On April 1st, 1999 the Government of Canada and the Aboriginal people agreed to create the territory of Nunavut.

  • The Inuit govern Nunavut. In other words, they are responsible for making and enforcing rules and laws; they exercise authority over Nunavut.


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Organizing a territory on ice

  • The land is covered in ice and snow throughout the year.

  • You’ll find patches of green and bright flowers during the summer.

  • Landscape is stony with lots of mountains and fjords.


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A profound change in Nunavut

  • Nunavut has a population of 30 000 with residents scattered among 26 communities.

  • The largest community in Nunavut is Iqaluit. Its also the capitalwith a population of over 6 000.


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Changes in their way of life in the last 50 years…

  • Before: Nomads

  • Now: Live in permanent homes.

  • Before 1950: They travelled in groups and lived in igloos.

  • Now: They live together in prefabricated houses.


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Educational Rights:

  • Before: Elders passed on knowledge to their children orally.

  • Now: School is mandatory under the age of 16 years old.

  • Now: Children study English and Inuktitut (their mother tongue) in schools.


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  • Today, projects are being set up to ensure that the traditional knowledge of the Elders is not lost.

  • Laval University and Nunavut Arctic College are working together with the elders to write down and record the knowledge that they have on historical events, spiritual beliefs & myths, recipes, cultural traditions, traditional ways of hunting and fishing, making clothes etc.


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Nunavut and its capital traditional knowledge of the Elders is not lost.

  • The capital of Nunavut is Iqaluit.

  • Once called Frobisher Bay (before 1991).

  • Named after explorer searching route to China!

  • Rapidly growing population of over 6 000 people.

  • Iqaluit is built on metal piles planted deep (10-12 meters) in the permafrost.

  • Water is delivered to homes by tanker trucks.


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How do residents earn a living? traditional knowledge of the Elders is not lost.

  • Many jobs exist in the public sector, teaching and health care.

  • Jobs in mining (diamonds, gold, copper, zinc, etc.).

  • Jobs in commercial fisheries.

  • Jobs in commercial hunting.

  • Jobs in commercial fishing.

  • Jobs in oil and natural gas industries.

  • Jobs in tourism (hotels, restaurants, tour guides etc.).

  • Jobs in artwork.

  • Communities are known for their sculptures, engraving and tapestries.

    7.


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How do people in Nunavut get around? traditional knowledge of the Elders is not lost.

  • Difficult to build roadways and railways on permafrost!

  • People use airplanes and boats (long distances).

  • Snowmobiles, bicycles and all-terrain vehicles (A.T.V.)

  • Dogsleds only used for tourist activities or leisure.


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Who are these stone people? traditional knowledge of the Elders is not lost.


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  • They are inuksuit (the plural of inuksuk), which means “in the image of a human” in Inuktitut.

  • It is built by hand.

  • Well-balanced and detailed.

  • Inuksuit perform the following functions:

  • Guiding hunters and travellers

  • Marking a site – a fishing ground

  • Defining boundaries of a territory

  • Scaring caribou toward a hunting ground

  • Representing an element of Inuit spirituality


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Territorial loss from the Century 17 the image of a human” in Inuktitut.th on

  • Ever since the arrival of the early settlers in the 1600s, Native territories and aboriginal ways of life have gradually disintegrated.

    Why are the European settlers to blame?

  • The Europeans kicked out or forced the Aboriginals to relocate. The Europeans did this to take away their natural resources.

  • New illnesses broke out

  • Declared war on them and killed thousands

  • Treaties* were ignored (*An agreement between First Nations and the Europeans)

  • Forced them onto reserves

  • We built over their land


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Terms the image of a human” in Inuktitut.

Band:

  • Group of aboriginals led by a chief and a band council (members elected by the community)

    Reserve:

  • Territory given to a First Nation community by the Government of Canada.

    Treaty:

  • An agreement between First Nations and the Crown.


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Reorganization today: the image of a human” in Inuktitut.

  • Aboriginal recognition of their rights for a long time.

  • Positive changes have only occurred in the past 30 years.

    Why?

  • Canadian government wants to have a good image in the Media and around the world.

  • Lots of meetings between Aboriginal leaders and the Government of Canada.

  • Pressure from Aboriginal organizations.


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Living together: What are the global issues? the image of a human” in Inuktitut.

  • Native territories have become sought-after.

  • Once remote areas, these territories are now open to visitors, and they are being eyed by developers for development.


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Aboriginal peoples of the world are faced with these issues: the image of a human” in Inuktitut.

  • Natural resources in their territories are being developed (for example: logging, mining, oil and gas drilling, and dam construction).

  • More and more Aboriginals are moving to the cities. This means there are less Aboriginals remaining in Aboriginal communities.

  • Environmental disasters (Ex: deforestation and river pollution)

  • Development of mass tourism


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UN declaration on the rights of indigenous people the image of a human” in Inuktitut.

  • This document is important because it states the rights of indigenous people.


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The declaration deals with the following guarantees to Aboriginals:

  • Preserving and protecting their Aboriginal identity.

  • Protecting their religion, their native language and providing school in both languages (English and Inuktitut).

  • Owning or using land and natural resources.

  • Preserving traditional ways of life (hunting, fishing, livestock raising, harvesting, logging, and farming).

  • Protecting their environment.

  • Controlling/governing their own territories.

  • Making sure agreements between the governments and the aboriginal groups are respected and carried out.


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OKA CRISIS Aboriginals:

  • It occurred in a small town in Oka.

  • It happened in the summer of 1990.

  • It was a showdown between native people, Quebec police and eventually the Canadian army.

  • The violent clash was triggered by over building a golf course over native burial grounds.

  • Blockades were placed by protesters.

  • It drew worldwide attention.

  • At the heart of the matter was native land rights.


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  • About 200 Mohawks from the Aboriginals:Kanesatake reserve marched through Oka protesting plans to expand the village's golf course.

  • They argued that the golf expansion would be encroaching on a sacred burial ground.

  • Approximately 1 300 residents live on the actual territory of the Kanesatake reserve.


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