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Multimedia object types: animation ISMT multimedia Dr Vojislav B Mišić Animation Technically, similar to video – a sequence of still images Images created artificially, as opposed to video (which presents something happening in the real world, maybe retouched)

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Multimedia object types animation l.jpg

Multimedia object types:animation

ISMT multimediaDr Vojislav B Mišić

Animation l.jpg

  • Technically, similar to video – a sequence of still images

  • Images created artificially, as opposed to video (which presents something happening in the real world, maybe retouched)

  • Why? Because it is a good (and sometimes less expensive) way to show/say some things

What we are going to talk about l.jpg
What we are going to talk about?

  • Cel (and flipbook) animation

  • Sprite, path, vector animation

  • Key frames and tweening

  • Character animation

  • 2D vs. 3D

  • … and other things

Flipbook animation l.jpg
Flipbook animation

  • displaying a sequence of graphic files(e.g., a slide show)

  • problem: takes too much time (especially over the Internet)

  • solution: some form of compression (we will discuss this in more detail later)

  • compression techniques are usually proprietary (different type of images!)

Cel animation l.jpg
Cel animation

  • animation created by a sequence of still images (as always)

  • different characters, objects, backgrounds overlaid to obtain the final image

  • final image is shot frame by frame

  • changes are made only to objects which move

  • multiplan camera (Disney): distance between layers in order to create an illusion of depth

Sprites and paths l.jpg
Sprites and Paths

  • sprite: a part of the animation which moves independently of the rest

  • anything can be a sprite: ball, animal, human, …

  • a sprite can be attached to a path (or vice versa), so that successive sprite positions are located on a path

  • sprite can animate in-place, or move along a path, or both

Splines and vectors l.jpg
Splines and Vectors

  • paths can be linear, but that is unrealistic

  • more often, paths follow a spline curve

  • watch for gravity!

  • example: mixed feelings

  • sprites can be describedas raster objects

Key frames l.jpg
Key frames

  • most important frames are drawn first:key frames

    • establish the main dramatic poses,

    • define the flow of actions, and

    • create the overall graphic style of the animation

Tweening l.jpg

  • tweening:frames areinsertedbetweenthe key frames

  • computer can do much of the tedious work

Motion interpolation l.jpg
Motion interpolation

  • Motion along an arbitrary line

  • Computer performs the interpolation

  • Special effects (rotation, resizing) can be specified along the line

Character animation l.jpg
Character animation

  • often the trickiest part – many simultaneous movements involved

  • faces are very difficult to animate

  • sometimescutouts areused forbody parts

Other design effects l.jpg
Other design effects

  • ease-in and ease-out

  • velocity curves

  • line-of-action

  • secondary action and overlapping action

  • follow-through

  • hierarchical motion

  • exaggeration

Anticipation action reaction l.jpg
Anticipation, action, reaction

  • Action/reaction is often anticipated before it actually happens

  • Sometimes aided by showing small movements immediately before the action

  • Reaction-recovery: small movements in the opposite direction immediately after the action

  • Fake: the action itself is not shown, only what happens before and immediately after

Kinematics l.jpg

  • (in mechanical engineering) study of motion of rigid objects and structures

  • (in motion picture technology) study of motion of (rigid) objects and structures with joints

  • examples: men (objects) walking, running,falling down or apart

  • inverse kinematics: calculating the motion form predefined key positions, under the given set of constraints

Morphing l.jpg

  • transformation of one image into another

  • very popular a few years ago

  • a number of key points is set on both images

  • actual transformation is calculated on the basis of transformation (in both position and color) of key points

  • more key points + more intermediate steps = smoother transformation

Animated gifs l.jpg
Animated GIFs

  • a sequence of still images (actually GIF images according to GIF89a standard), packed for the Internet

  • suitable for simple animations

  • small size = short loading time

  • several tools available (including one from Microsoft)

Macromedia flash l.jpg
Macromedia Flash

  • Quickly becoming de facto standard

  • Compact export format, players

  • Ability to incorporate raster images as well as vector objects

  • Powerful 2D motion effects

  • Hotspots to support interactivity

  • More on Flash in the lab sessions …

2d vs 3d l.jpg
2D vs. 3D

  • our perception of the world is three-dimensional

  • 3D effects improve visual appearance

  • 3D special effects can be added to 2D images (most drawing/painting programs can do it)

  • 3D images can be generated from appropriate scene setups

  • … but: sophisticated applications are required

3d effects l.jpg
3D effects

  • adding depth to 2D images

  • effects like

    • extruding

    • shadows

    • highlights

    • embossing

    • texturing

    • special lighting effects

Genuine 3d l.jpg
Genuine 3D

  • genuine 3D worlds rendered into 2D images

  • tasks in creating 3D: a brief overview according to Pixar

Step 1 creating storyboards l.jpg
Step 1: Creating Storyboards

  • detailed storyboard drawings are created as the blueprint for the action and dialog

  • there can be as many as 3 to 4 thousand such drawings for a feature-length movie (which comes to about onedrawing everytwo seconds or so)

  • they are revisedmany times duringthe creativedevelopment process

Step 2 modeling l.jpg
Step 2: Modeling

  • specialized animation software is used to create three-dimensional computer models of characters, props, and sets

  • computer models describe the shape of the object as well as themotion controls thatthe animators use tocreate movementand expressions

Step 3 animation l.jpg
Step 3: Animation

  • specialized animation software allows animators to choreograph the motion in each scene by defining key frames or poses

  • computer automatically creates the "in-between" frames

  • animators neitherdraw, nor paint thescenes, as is requiredin traditionalanimation process

Step 4 l.jpg
Step 4:

  • surface characteristics, including textures, finishes and colors, are added to every object in the scene

  • textures can simulate a wide variety of appearances

  • textures may be 2Dimages or proceduralalgorithms

  • additional properties:reflectivity,transparency …

Step 5 l.jpg
Step 5:

  • Using "digital lights," every scene is lit in much the same manner as stage lighting

  • Key, fill and bounce lights and room ambience are all defined and used to enhance the mood and emotion of each scene

Lighting is the key l.jpg
Lighting is the key

  • Key light – the brightest

  • Fill light – opposite the key light, reduces contrast and shadows

  • Back light – reduces shadows, separates the subject from the background

  • Powder your nose

Step 6 rendering l.jpg
Step 6: Rendering

  • rendering software (Pixar's proprietary RenderMan) "draws" the finished image by computing every pixel of the image from the model, animation, shading, and lighting information

  • once rendered, finalimages aretransferred to film,video, or CD-ROM

Summary l.jpg

  • Animation is often the simplest way to accomplish motion

  • If you want to go beyond what Flash can offer, be ready for surprises …