Managing Aircraft Stuctural Integrity in the ADF

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Managing Aircraft Stuctural Integrity in the ADF

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1. Managing Aircraft Stuctural Integrity in the ADF WGCDR David Zemel Deputy Director – Aircraft Structural Integrity Aircraft Airworthiness and Sustainment Conference 2010

2. Introduction Achieving ASI A little history The ASI Program Managing ASI in the ADF Development of the ADF ASI Program Contemporary ADF ASI Environment Current ADF ASI Policy ADF ASI Program Requirements Tailoring and ASI Program Example Through Life Support Arrangement

3. Aircraft Structural Integrity - History “The property of an airframe to withstand the loads for which it is designed”1 1USAF Dictionary 1956 Cited in Report 680.1B, History of the Aircraft Structural Integrity Program, ASIAC, 1980

4. Aircraft Structural Integrity - History

5. Subsequent developments in design development and in-service management against fatigue Higher static strength leading to corresponding increases in fatigue strength Fail-Safe design principles Damage Tolerance design principles Durability considerations Full Scale Fatigue Testing Ageing aircraft considerations Widespread Fatigue Damage considerations Corrosion control Dedicated ASI Programs…

6. Typical Civil & Military ASI Programs Civil ICAO Airworthiness Manual Certification Continuing Airworthiness Continuing Airworthiness Assurance FAA Reg (25.1529 Continuing Airworthiness) Airworthiness Limitations Structural Inspection Requirements Mandatory Replacement Times Military MIL-STANDARD-1530 (Parts) Design Information Analysis Full Scale Testing Fleet Data (and Certification) Fleet Management

7. 1980’s RAAF separated ASI management fatigue management (centralised), other forms of degradation (decentralised) No holistic whole of life management ASIP concept considered but never developed Debate over decentralising fatigue management 1990 two unrelated accidents due to fatigue…

8. Development of the ADF ASI Program

9. Findings RAAF had not identified the intended outcome from ASI management Management system was not constraining risk providing timely germane advice to decision makers Processes in place, but outcome degraded due lack of understanding of principles Dispersal of expertise should be avoided Development of the ADF ASI Program

10. ADF’s first ASIP required: Assessing design against RAAF Standard Assuring quality on production Identifying critical items for through-life management Regular re-assessment of certification, management policy (inspections), physical condition Collection and analysis of environmental & usage data Documentation of Program in a plan ASIP covered State aircraft only Based on ASI-DGTA performing a majority of the ASIP tasks on behalf of WSLMS/SPO Development of the ADF ASI Program

11. By mid 2000’s the landscape was changing: Through Life Support (TLS) outsourced to industry from acquisition Breadth of Airworthiness Management System State Registered (Mil Spec, Civil variant (EASA, FAR23, FAR25)) Non-State Registered (VH reg) Increasing types due to capability expansion Increasing range of TLS models and certification standards Technology advancement Materials – e.g. composites, glare Standards – development and interpretation of ADF unique solutions Methods – e.g. RRA, SPD, FSW Structural Health Monitoring Non-destructive Testing Ageing fleets Broad range of logistic issues Effectiveness and applicability of the Certification Standard Contemporary ADF ASI Environment

12. Recent changes to Policy - Further reflection on CAA Review coupled with contemporary environment No longer use a comparative standard Less prescriptive. Pushes some of the prescriptive elements into the Technical Airworthiness Management Manual ASIP Policy implementation becomes more flexible and responsive Define and specify ASI Program requirements Identifies contemporary roles and responsibilities Ability to use appropriate tailoring Requirement for retention of indigenous ASI knowledge ASI Program Guidance based on MIL-HDBK-1530 Current ADF ASI Policy

13. Current ADF ASI Policy Statement

14. Current ADF ASI Policy Objectives

15. Flow of Requirements from ADF ASI Policy

17. ASI Program Information Flow Implementing the ASIP involves establishing systems that: Collect the data Assess the data Report on the outcomes Report types include Routine Usage Status Usage Assessment Fatigue Assessment Structural Condition Assessment These systems will be described and approved in the Management Plan. Specific instructions will be required by the implementing authority – SPO, TLS Contractor

18. Ultimately any ASIP can be tailored Recognises the broad range of TLS arrangements Recognises different acquisition strategies Recognises legacy programs (Civil and Military) Recognises nature of configuration, role and operating environment Recognises broader application of Airworthiness Management System There are two main areas to be considered when tailoring Tailoring the ASIP requirements Tailoring the ASI management Tailoring ASIP requirements Default is full ASIP requirements Minimum requires some method to ensure System of Maintenance remains valid while operating with ADF Tailoring an ASI Program

19. Tailoring ASI management Defining the roles and responsibilities Account for nature of TLS arrangement Account for experience of implementing agency Account for role of aircraft All programs are to be Authorised by DGTA-ADF All programs are to have a manager assigned whose responsibility is to ensure all elements of the ASIP are implemented. Tailoring an ASI Program

20. Examples of TLS arrangements In-service Model (ASI/SPO) Outsource Model (ASI/SPO/Prime Contractor) Many variations FMS Model (ASI/SPO/USAF) Lease Model (ASI/Contracting Agency/Contractor/NAA) Museum (ASI/Operating Org/NAA) Tailoring ASIP Management

21. Tailoring an ASI Program – Example TLS

22. Driving Principles Safety Availability Cost of Ownership Management Principles Legacy certification (where possible) Understand Standards and their application Data collection, assessment and feedback Four circles - Primary Attestation against SoM - Secondary

23. The History of the Aircraft Structural Integrity Program, ASIAC, Report No. 680.1B, 1980 Milestone Case Histories in Aircraft Structural Integrity, R. Wanhill, NLR, 2002 Investigation into Ansett Australia maintenance safety deficiencies and the control of continuing airworthiness of Class A aircraft, File No. BS/20010005, ATSB A Report into the Management of Aircraft Structural Integrity in the RAAF, CAA, 1992 Developments in RAAF Aircraft Structural Integrity, E.S. Wilson, RAAF, 1995 Some observations on fatigue life management, A.J. Emmerson, CASA Aircraft and Engine Structural Integrity Management (Draft), DI(G) LOG 4-5-016 Code of Federal Regulations 14, Aeronautics and Space, FAA, DOT, 2010

24. Questions?

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