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Carothers: comments & criticisms Determinants of Democracy? Economics & Democracy II India vs. Nigeria This week (tentative): Tuesday-Wednesday-Thursday, 12:30-3:30 Winter break: email Papers Final papers discussion Caroters

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  • Carothers: comments & criticisms

  • Determinants of Democracy?

  • Economics & Democracy II

  • India vs. Nigeria

  • This week (tentative): Tuesday-Wednesday-Thursday, 12:30-3:30

  • Winter break: email

  • Papers

  • Final papers discussion


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Caroters

(i) “The war on terrorism has hurt America's status as a model of democracy and weakened America's credibility as a prodemocratic actor.”

(ii) “Democracy is in a strict sense about political values, choices, and processes; it does not per se provide answers to economic and social problems.”


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(iii) Carothers implies that these factors combined are dangerous for a democratic country, but how could you combine them?


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Democracy & Development dangerous for a democratic country, but how could you combine them?

  • Development → Democracy

    (endogenous account)

    Democracy is endogenous to (is a creation of) development;

    Democracies are more likely to emerge as countries develop


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(ii) Development dangerous for a democratic country, but how could you combine them?sustains democracy

(exogenous account)

Democracies emerge forreasons other than development, but they are more likely to survive as democracies indeveloped nations (exogenous)


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Przeworski et al., 1997, 2000 dangerous for a democratic country, but how could you combine them?

Predicting regime type (Auth. or Dem.) as a function of several independent variables:

a)Economic development (per capita GNP)

b)Political legacy ((i) NC/post-1945 & (ii) British legacy)

c)Political history (# of past transitions to authoritarianism)

d) Religious structure (% Catholic, Protestant, Muslim)

e) Cleavages (ethno-linguistic & religious fractionalization)

d) International political climate (% democracies in world)


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Dynamic model? type

  • Predicting change/transition?

  • Life-expectancy of dictatorships:

    20 years at $1,000 per capita GDP

    15 years at $5,000

    11 years at $10,000

    6 years at $20,000


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Tradeoffs? type

  • Is it necessary to sacrifice democracy for development?

  • Who is better at promoting economic growth?

  • Democracies vs. dictatorships: moderately affluent nations ($3,000-3,500)

  • Similar growth rates

  • However…


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(Wealthy) dictatorships: type

(i) use a lot of labor &

(ii) pay low wages (repressing unions)

(i) + (ii) → labor-intensive productivity,

  • higher birth rates/fertility

  • but shorter longevity (esp. for women)


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(Wealthy) democracies: type

Grow by using labor more effectively:

  • slower population & labor growth rates,

  • higher wages

  • benefit more from technical progress


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Summary type

  • Clear, positive relationship between economic development & democracy

  • Some scholars argue that development increases democracy’s survivability odds (exogenous effect)

  • Others argue that development increases the chances of transition to democracy (exogenous effect)


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India vs. Nigeria type

  • What does India have that Nigeria does not?

  • “Resource curse”?

  • Oil → corruption, authoritarianism

  • Cultural cleavages: India vs. Nigeria

  • Institutions?

    Federalism: India vs. Nigeria (different logic)

    Presidentialism (Nigeria) vs. parliamentarism (India)


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Papers type

  • Take a look at the CD (recommended readings)

  • Also, take a look at online resources (APSA, Midwest, Kellog)

  • Do some web search

    Writing:

  • Passive voice vs. active voice (exercise)

  • “I” vs. “we”


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