Extinction of learned behavior
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Extinction of Learned Behavior. Lecture 13. Extinction of Reinforced Behavior. Behavior changes relatively permanent Modifiable if situation changes NOT unlearning Respondent: cue doesn’t predict important event CS : No US Operant: B no longer followed by important event

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Extinction of Learned Behavior

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Extinction of Learned Behavior

Lecture 13


Extinction of Reinforced Behavior

Behavior changes relatively permanent

Modifiable if situation changes

NOT unlearning

Respondent: cue doesn’t predict important event

CS : No US

Operant: B no longer followed by important event

SD : B  No SR ~


Extinction

Hi

Strength

of R

Lo

Acquisition CS : No US

B  No SR


Effects of Extinction

Respondent behavior

CR diminishes

Emotional: frustration/relief

Operant behavior

 B Extinction burst

Gradual  B

 response variability ~


Operant Extinction

Hi

Strength

of R

Lo

Acquisition B  No SR

  • frustration  burst &  response variability ~


Extinction & Negative RFT of

  • Escape behavior

    • B  terminates aversive event

    • extinction similar to positive RFT

  • Avoidance Behavior

    • B  prevents aversive event

    • Resistant to extinction

    • limited exposure to SD

    • flooding  exposure to complete SD ~


Extinction: Punishment

Recovery of Punished Behavior

Behavior no longer punished

B  no SR

 B

full recovery  original B level

depends on intensity & frequency of punishment ~


Extinction vs Forgetting

  • Forgetting

    • Decay of memory

    • With passage of time

  • Extinction

    • Requires B to occur repeatedly

    • Without RFT ~


Extinction vs. Habituation

  • Habituation

    •  reflexive response

    • Reflexive response inherited

  • Extinction

    •  in an acquired response

    • B no longer reinforced

    • Response acquired via learning ~


Operant: Extinction vs. Punishment

Both reduce behavior frequency

extinction  gradual

strong punishment  rapid

Positive punishment disadvantages

fear responses

escape/avoidance

aggression ~


Why Does Extinction Occur?

  • Inhibitory learning

    • CS+ : no US and SD : B  no SR

    • contingencies change

    • become inhibitory signals: CS- / SΔ

  • Operant: role of CERs

    • nonRFT  frustration

      • B  aversive CER: B

    • nonPunishment  relief

      • B  appetitive CER:  B ~


Reinstatement after Extinction

Recovery of learned responses (CR)

response to CS+ / SD

Phenomena

Spontaneous Recovery

Disinhibition

Renewal effect

Shows that association intact

NOT unlearned ~


Spontaneous Recovery

  • Passage of time since last CS/SD ~

Hi

Time passes

Strength

of R

Lo

Acquistion Extinction CS/SD occurs


Novel

Stimulus

Disinhibition

  • Novel stimulus precedes CS/SD ~

Hi

Strength

of CR

Lo

Acquistion Extinction CS/SD occurs


Renewal Effect

  • Extinction context-dependent

    • Acquisition: “old” environment

    • Extinction: “new” environment

  • Go back to “old” environment

    • Responses are renewed

  • Indicates association intact

    • All CS / SD not present during extinction

    • different contexts ~


Extinction:

at clinic

New

Old

Fear Gone?

Renewal Effect: Flying Phobia

Acquisition:

in plane


Reacquisition

  • Events paired again

    • CS : US

    • B  SR

  • Associations quickly re-strengthened

    • fewer trials  asymptote

    • than original acquisition

  • Because previous associations intact

    • adaptive behaviors

    • relapse for maladaptive behaviors ~


Reacquisition

Hi

Strength

of R

Lo

Acquisition Extinction Reacquisition


Parodoxical RFT Effects

  • Particularly for CRF

    •  expectation of RFT

    • No SR frustration  faster extinction

  • Overtraining Extinction Effect

    • More training  higher expectation of RFT

  • Magnitude of RFT

    •  RFT magnitude  higher expectation of RFT

  •  Frustration when not RFT

    • aversive – acts like punisher ~


Extinction ≠ Unlearning

  • Association persists after extinction

  • Reinstatement of responding after extinction

    • Spontaneous recovery

    • Renewal Effect

    • Disinhibition

    • Reacquisition

  • Difficulty in treating addictions & behavioral disorders

    • Relapse can occur relatively easy ~


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