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Robotics Why Robotics? Practice Promise Why Robotics? Vibrant field Why Robotics? A window to the soul... Advances in AI and in Robotics are one and the same thing. What is a robot? What is a robot? MOVIT line follower Rug Warrior Self-guiding golf cart Sea-man USC helicopter

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Why Robotics?

Practice

Promise


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Why Robotics?

Vibrant field


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Why Robotics?

A window to the soul...

Advances in AI and in Robotics are one and the same thing.



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What is a robot?

MOVIT line follower

Rug Warrior

Self-guiding golf cart

Sea-man

USC helicopter

Al Gore

Ripley’s Exoskeleton

Battlescar the BattleBot


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categorizing robots

Abstraction

just is

software

hardware

human-controlled

Autonomy

independent


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categorizing robots

Abstraction

just is

software

hardware

human-controlled

Autonomy

independent


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What is robotics?

Autonomous : Robot :: ________ : Mudder

Sleeping

Unicycling

Overworked

Robot a physical system that autonomously senses the environment and acts in it.


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Robot timeline

...

1921


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Robot timeline

Isaac Asimov’s Laws of Robotics

First Law:

A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.

Second Law:

A robot must obey orders given it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.

Third Law:

A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.

Karl Capek

...

I, Robot

1921

1950


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Robot timeline

Karl Capek

...

I, Robot

1921

1950

2020


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Robot timeline

Karl Capek

Dalek

...

I, Robot

1921

1950

2020

2150


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Robot timeline

Karl Capek

Dalek

...

I, Robot

1921

1950

2020

2150

2421


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Real robot timeline

“Tortoise”

...

1951


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Shakey

Nils Nilsson @ Stanford Research Inst.

first “general-purpose” mobile platform

...

...

1968


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Shakey

Nils Nilsson @ Stanford Research Inst.

first “general-purpose” mobile platform

Living Room (L)

Kitchen (K)

sp

tv

sh

tvg

Bedroom (B)

...

...

1968


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Shakey Start

START

  • Go(x,y)

  • Preconditions: At(sh,x)

  • Postconditions: At(sh,y)

  • Push(obj,x,y)

  • Preconditions: At(sh,x)  At(obj,x)

  • Postconditions: At(sh,y)  At(obj,y)

ACTIONS

At(sh,L)  At(sp,K)  At(tvg,B)  At(tv,L)

Go(L,B)

Push(tv,L,B)

Go(L,K)

Push(tv,L,K)

At(sh,K)  At(sp,K)  At(tvg,B)  At(tv,K)

At(sh,L)  At(sp,L)  At(tvg,L)  At(tv,L)

GOAL


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Stanford Cart

Hans Moravec @ SAIL

ACTING

“functional” task decomposition

SENSING

planning

perception

task execution

motor control

world modeling

...

...

1976



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Insects

Rodney Brooks @ MIT

planning and reasoning

“behavioral” task decomposition

identify objects

build maps

ACTING

SENSING

explore

wander

avoid objects

...

...

1985


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Subsumption Architecture

runaway behavior

FSM / DFA


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Subsumption Architecture

wander behavior

runaway behavior

FSM / DFA


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Subsumption Architecture

navigate behavior

wander behavior

runaway behavior

FSM / DFA


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Subsumption Architecture

Genghis in action!


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Beyond subsumption

Navlab & ALVINN

Polly

...

...

1995


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