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Biodiversity Loss. Presented by Jim Jackson Debbie Lynch. Biodiversity Loss. CAUSES ETHICS SOLUTIONS. Yes, that is the Carolina Parakeet. Biodiversity Defined. Population Diversity Size of overall population Size and Numbers of local populations Distribution Genetic makeup

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Biodiversity Loss

Presented by

Jim Jackson

Debbie Lynch

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Biodiversity Loss




Yes, that is the Carolina Parakeet.

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Biodiversity Defined

Population Diversity

  • Size of overall population

  • Size and Numbers of local populations

  • Distribution

  • Genetic makeup

  • Better for analyzing biodiversity loss

Species Diversity

  • Differences between species

  • Most often used to quantify biodiversity loss

  • More studies completed in this area

  • Presentation focus

  • Rosy Periwinkle.

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What is Natural?

Compared to…

  • Average Species lives for 4 million years

  • One mammal per 1000 years

    • 80 mammals in 400 years

  • One bird per 500 years

    • 115 birds in 400 years

  • One reptile or amphibian every 400 years

    • 123 fish in 100 years (in America alone)

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Biodiversity Loss

  • Overexploitaion

  • Invasive Species

  • Habitat Loss


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Biodiversity Loss


Death rate > Birth rate

Steller’s Seacow

Hunted for profit/food

Passenger Pigeon

Hunted as a pest

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Biodiversity Loss

Invasive Species

Affects 49% of threatened or endangered species in America

10% rule:

10% of introduced species take, 10% of species that take become invasive


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Biodiversity Loss

Invasive Species

Linear relationship between diversity of species and landmass

If the earth was a single landmass, we would lose 66% of mammal diversity & 48% bird diversity

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Biodiversity Loss

Invasive Species


Ex: Cats vs. New Zealand ground birds

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Biodiversity Loss

Invasive Species

Competition & Habitat Alteration

Ex: Knapweed!

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Biodiversity Loss

Invasive Species


Ex. Native Mediterranean White Duck vs. more numerous Ruddy Duck



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Biodiversity Loss

Invasive Species

Disease Vectors

Colonization of the Americas

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Biodiversity Loss

Habitat Loss

Affects 85% of threatened or endagered species in America

Area the size of South America is planted with crops

175 billion pounds of nitrogen & tons of pesticide applied annually

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Biodiversity Loss

Habitat Loss

Logging forests

Overharvesting => habitat loss

Water manipulation

Damns, irrigation

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Biodiversity Loss

  • Life is Sacred

  • Economics Costs/Benefit

    • $30 trillion worth of services

    • Costs US $137 billion to fight invasive species annually

  • Future Benefits

    • Medicines

  • It’s Cool


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Every Species Has Its Natural Environment

Biodiversity Loss

Species that live in a specific area are ENDEMICS.

Species that are capable of living in a variety of environments are GENERALISTS.


Endemics are more likely to be affected by change.

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Protecting Biodiversity

Biodiversity Loss

  • Priorities

  • Econimically

    • It is economically advantageous to protect biodiversity

  • Ecologically

    • By protecting biodiversity, it will prevent ecological problems

  • Secondary

  • Emotional Attachment

    • By protecting nature for nature’s sake provides intrinsic value to biodiversity

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Biodiversity Loss

  • In Costa Rica, a preserve was established to preserve biodiversity for economic reasons

  • Ecotourism

  • Pharmaceuticals

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Biodiversity Loss

Keystone species are species that are crucial to the structure of the entire ecosystem. Without keystone species, ecosystems could not function well.

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Intrinsic Value

Biodiversity Loss

First Lady Laura Bush has begun to restore their Crawford Texas ranch with native species of grasses.

By restoring the native vegetation, Laura hopes to restore the natural habitat of a variety of species.

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Methods of Preservation

Biodiversity Loss

In Situ

Habitat Conservation

Regulation of Land Use

Protecting Species

Ex Situ

Captive Breeding

Zoological Parks

Botanical Gardens

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Irian Jaya’s Reserve System

Biodiversity Loss

  • In designing the Irian Jaya reserves, the Indonesian government

  • considers

  • Habitat

  • Biogeography

  • Area

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The Black Footed Ferret

Biodiversity Loss

With an extremely small population, these ferrets were captured in order to reestablish a viable population.

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Cost/Benefits of Protecting Biodiversity

Biodiversity Loss

  • Opportunity Costs

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Opportunity Costs

Biodiversity Loss

  • Management

  • Maintenance

  • Future Benefits

  • Economic Value