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Video-Mediated Communication. Michael Nunes CPSC 781 September 21, 2005. Primary Sources / Readings. Papers in K. Finn, A. Sellen and S. Wilbur (Eds) Video-Mediated Communications. LEA Press. 1997 Whittaker, S. and O'Conaill, B. The Role of Vision in Face-to-Face and Mediated Communication.

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Video mediated communication l.jpg

Video-Mediated Communication

Michael Nunes

CPSC 781

September 21, 2005


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Primary Sources / Readings

Papers in K. Finn, A. Sellen and S. Wilbur (Eds) Video-Mediated Communications. LEA Press. 1997

  • Whittaker, S. and O'Conaill, B. The Role of Vision in Face-to-Face and Mediated Communication.

  • Angiolillo, J., Blanchard, H., Israelski, E. and Mane, A. Technology Constraints of Video-Mediated Communication.

  • (optional) Isaacs, E. and Tang, J. Studying Video-Based Collaboration in Context: From Small Workgroups to Large Organizations.

    4. (optional) Fish, R., Kraut, R. and Chalfonte, B. The VideoWindow System in Informal Communications. Proc. ACM CSCW'90. 1-11. 1990


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Types of VMC Services

  • Video Telephone

  • Desktop Video Conferencing

  • Group Systems

  • Media Spaces and Special Purpose Systems

Desktop video chat: Macromedia

iPower Technologies Video Phone


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Role of Vision In Communication

Role of vision in communication:

Why use visual information to facilitate communication?


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Classes of Visual Information

  • Participant Behavior

    • Gaze

    • Gesture

    • Facial Expression

    • Posture

  • Visible Environment

    • Objects and Events in the collaborative environment

    • Availability


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Communication Framework

  • Process Coordination

    • Turn-taking cues

    • Availability cues

  • Content Coordination

    • Reference

    • Feedback cues

    • Interpersonal cues


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Hypotheses

  • Nonverbal Communication

  • Availability Information

  • Visible Environment (Video as Data)


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Hypothesis #1

  • Nonverbal Communication

    • Cognitive cues for shared understanding

    • Cues to support turn-taking

    • Social cues and emotional information


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Hypotheses

  • Nonverbal Communication

  • Availability Information

  • Visible Environment (Video as Data)


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Hypothesis #2

  • Availability Information

    • Facilitation of unplanned communication

    • Glance

      • Ex. Montage System

    • Open Link

      • Ex. VideoWindow System


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Hypotheses

  • Nonverbal Communication

  • Availability Information

  • Visible Environment (Video as Data)


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Hypothesis #3

  • Visible Environment (Video as Data)

    • Information about shared work objects

    • Successful example: remote surgery

    • May also be useful for other design tasks



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Life Cycle of a Video Call

  • Set a call

  • Capture sights and sounds of participants

  • Process the image

  • Transmission

  • Display


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Set A Call

  • Basic operation

  • Can be a barrier to participants willingness to use system

    • Spontaneity

    • System complexity


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Capture

  • Physical environment

  • Camera

  • Camera control

  • Hands-free communication


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Process the Image

  • Transmitting sound and image is expensive!

    • 90,000,000 bps to deliver t.v. quality

  • Compression and codecs

  • Video standards and interoperability

  • Audio delay and lip sync

  • Video messaging


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Transmission

  • Choice of transmission lines

    • Analog or digital

    • Wire or wireless

    • Private or public switched

  • Bandwidth is an issue for all


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Display

  • Display size

  • Image attributes

  • Local Views

  • Eye contact/gaze awareness

  • Sound quality

  • Multipoint VMC


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Other Problems

  • Technology limitations may eventually be overcome

  • Adoption of new video communication technology can not be done by a single user

  • Needs to be widespread to be useful


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The End!

“Eating one battery”

Questions and Discussion?

Fig. 1

“Eating five batteries”

Fig. 2


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