United states and the world in the twentieth century
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UNITED STATES AND THE WORLD IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY. THE KOREAN WAR. Korea, 1945-1950 Stalin’s ’Green Light’ American Reaction War and its costs Global Conflict. NORTH KOREA Kim Il Sung Soviet Occupation (last Soviet troops leave in December 1948)

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UNITED STATES AND THE WORLD IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

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UNITED STATES AND THE WORLD IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY


THE KOREAN WAR

  • Korea, 1945-1950

  • Stalin’s ’Green Light’

  • American Reaction

  • War and its costs

  • Global Conflict


NORTH KOREA

Kim Il Sung

Soviet Occupation (last Soviet troops leave in December 1948)

Democratic Republic of Korea, September 1948

SOUTH KOREA

Syngman Rhee

American Occupation (last troops leave June 1949)

Republic of Korea, August 1948

KOREA, 1945-50


STALIN’S ’GREEN LIGHT’

  • In conversations with Kim Il-Sung in April 1950 in the Kremlin, Stalin gave four reasons why the international environment had "changed sufficiently to permit a more active stance on the unification of Korea."

  • 1. "the significant strengthening of the socialist camp in the East: the victory of the Chinese revolution, the signing of an alliance between the USSR and the PRC, and the USSR's acquisition of an atomic bomb.“

  • 2. "the obvious weakness of the reactionary camp: the shameful defeat of America's intervention into Chinese affairs, Western troubles in Southeast Asia, and the inability of the South Korean regime and its American masters to improve the social, economic, and political situation in South Korea."


STALIN’S GREEN LIGHT

  • 3. "the dishonest, perfidious, and arrogant behavior of the United States in Europe, the Balkans, the Middle East, and especially its decision to form NATO." According to Stalin, "America was no longer a partner, but [instead] an adversary, and the Soviet Union could not bind itself any longer to agreements with [such] an adversary.“

  • 4. "aggressive designs of the South Korean junta." As Stalin concluded, "the South was determined to launch an attack on the North sooner or later and it was important to forestall this aggression."


AMERICAN REACTION

The attack upon Korea makes it plain beyond all doubt that Communism has passed beyond the use of subversion to conquer independent nations and will now use armed invasion and war. It has defied the orders of the Security Council of the United Nations issued to preserve international peace and security.

Truman, June 27, 1950


KOREAN WAR

  • Inchon Landings, September 1950

  • Chinese entry, October 1950

  • MacArthur’s Dismissal, April 1951

  • July 1951 Truce Talks Begin

  • Eisenhower (1953-61)

  • Stalin’s death (March 1953)

  • Cease-fire, July 1953


COSTS OF THE KOREAN WAR

American casualties: 54.000 (Vietnam: 58,000)

South Korean: 228.000

Estimates of Chinese casualties: 132.000 (PRC) to 900.000 (US)

Estimates of North Korean casualties:

90.000 (DRK) to 600.000 (US)


AMERICAN

NATO

Rio Treaty

ANZUS

Baghdad Pact – CENTO

SEATO

Bilateral treaties (Japan, Philippines, S. Korea, Taiwan)

SOVIET

Sino-Soviet Alliance

Warsaw Pact

ALLIANCE SYSTEMS


Europe

Middle East

Far East

Latin America

Africa

Military rivalry

Economic warfare

Propaganda struggle

Scientific competition

ON EVERY FRONT:COLD WAR GOES GLOBAL


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