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Sexuality, Pregnancy, and Childbirth. Chapter 5. Sexuality. Components of Sexuality Biological characteristics “Acceptable” behaviors Role of the media. Sexual Identity. Determined by an interaction of genetic, physiological and environmental factors.

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Sexuality l.jpg
Sexuality

  • Components of Sexuality

  • Biological characteristics

  • “Acceptable” behaviors

  • Role of the media


Sexual identity l.jpg
Sexual Identity

  • Determined by an interaction of genetic, physiological and environmental factors.

    • Conception - combining of chromosomes.

      • Egg carries an X sex chromosome.

      • Sperm carries either a X or Y chromosome.

      • XX provides the blueprint to produce a female.

      • XY provides the blueprint to produce a male.


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Sexual Identity

  • Gonads - developed at the eighth week of fetal life.

    • Germ cells.

    • Produces the sex hormones.

      • Males - testes hormone - testosterone.

      • Females - ovaries hormone - estrogen and progesterone.

  • Puberty - gonadotropins.

    • Secondary sex characteristics.


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External Female Genitals (Vulva)

Mons pubis

Labia majora

Labia minora

Prepuce

Clitoris

Urethral opening

Vagina

Internal Female Genitals

Uterus

Endometrium

Cervix

Ovaries

Fallopian tubes

Reproductive Anatomy


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Reproductive Anatomy

  • Male Sex Organs: Two components

    • Penis

      • The Glans

      • Epididymis

    • Scrotum

      • Function (Temperature 93.6 degrees F)

      • Testes

      • Seminiferous tubules within the Testes

      • Vas Deferens

      • Corpus spongiosum

      • Prostate

      • Cowper’s glands

      • Vas deferens

      • Seminal vesicle


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Hormones and The Reproductive Life Cycle

  • Hormones: Endocrine glands

    • Testes produce androgens - testosterone

    • Ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone

    • Cortex of the Adrenal gland

    • Pituitary gland


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Differentiation of the Embryos

  • 23 pairs of Chromosomes

  • Conception

  • Presence of the Y chromosome

  • Presence of the X chromosome


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Female Sexual Maturation

  • Physical maturation.

  • Menstrual Cycle - four phases.

    • Menses.

      • Days 1-5

    • Estrogenic phase.

      • Days 6-13

    • Ovulation phase.

      • Day 14

    • Progestational phase.

      • Days 15-27


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Menstrual Problems

  • Dysmenorrhea.

  • Premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

  • Premenstrual Dysphoric disorder (PMDD).


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Male Sexual Maturation

  • 2 years later than girls.

  • Physical changes.


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Aging and Human Sexuality

  • Menopause

    • Decreasing estrogen

  • Males

    • Gradual decrease of testosterone


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Sexual Function

  • The sexual physiology

  • Sexual stimulation

  • Physical stimulation

  • Psychological stimulation


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Responsible Sexual Behavior

  • Careful decision making

  • Open, honest communication about intentions

  • Sexual activities that both partners agree upon

  • The use of Contraception during sexual intercourse

  • The use of safer sex practices to guard against sexually transmitted diseases (STD’s)

  • Taking responsibility for the consequences of sexual behavior


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Sexual Response Cycle

  • Vasocongestion

  • Myotonia

  • Excitement phase

  • Plateau phase

  • Orgasmic phase

    • Males (refractory phase)

  • Resolution phase


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Sexual Health Problems

  • Biological and Physical conditions:

    • Women:

      • Vaginitis

      • Endometriosis

      • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

    • Men:

      • Prostatitis

      • Testicular cancer


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Sexual Dysfunction’s

  • Psychological Causes:

    • Any medical condition that might contribute to SD

      • diabetes, stress, prescription drugs and/or alcohol

    • Male - premature ejaculation and retarded ejaculation

    • Women – vaginismus

  • Treatment

    • Psychosocial - troubled relationships

    • Behavioral

    • Relaxation and massage techniques


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Gender, Sexuality, and the Mass Media

  • Influences of Mass media and shaping ideas about sexuality and gender roles

  • Childhood sexual behavior

  • Adolescent sexuality

  • Adult sexuality


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Gender Identity

  • Gender - masculinity or femininity.

  • Gender Roles - generalizations.

  • Androgyny - combination of traditional masculine and feminine traits.

  • Socialization - process which society transmits behavioral expectations.

  • Transgender – individuals who’s appearance, characteristics or behavior differs from social norms for males and females.


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Sexual Orientation

  • Person’s preference in sex partners

    • Heterosexual

    • Homosexual couples

    • Bisexuals

  • Development of Sexual Orientation

    • Biological and genetic factors

    • Freudian psychoanalysis - Oedipus complex

    • Learning theory

    • Complex series of biological and psychological interactions


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Expression of Sexuality

  • Celibacy

  • Autoeroticism

  • Foreplay

  • Oral-Genital stimulation

  • Anal intercourse

  • Sexual intercourse


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Human Sexuality

  • Important part of an adult life and must be practiced responsibly.

  • Communication about interactions.

  • Sexual activities.

  • Privacy.

  • Contraception.

  • Safer sex practices.

  • Sober Sex.

  • Responsibility for consequences.


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Deciding to Become a Parent

  • Physical health and age

  • Financial circumstances

  • Relationship with your partner

  • Education, career and child care plans

  • Emotional readiness

  • Social support

  • Personal qualities

  • Philosophical or religious beliefs


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Preconception Care

  • Preexisting medical conditions.

  • Prescription drug/OTC drug use.

  • Prior pregnancy or delivery problems.

  • Age.

  • Smoking, alcohol or other drug usage.

  • Any infections?

  • Diet.

  • Usage of diethylstilbestrol (DES).

  • Multiple births.

  • Family history of genetic disorders.


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Conception/Fertility

  • Conception involves the fertilization of a women’s egg by a man’s sperm

    • Each month a women’s ovaries release an egg

    • 3-4 days - the egg travels through the fallopian tubes

    • Egg not fertilized

    • Millions of sperm

    • Sperm release an enzyme

    • Egg and sperm each carry 23 chromosomes


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Women

Blocked fallopian tubes

Pelvic Inflamm. Disease

Endometriosis

Hormonal imbalance

Uterine Growths

Allergic responses to sperm

Smoking

Alcohol

Toxic chemicals or radiation

Men

Low sperm count

Poor motility

Blocked passageways

Toxic substances

Smoking

Drugs

Testicular injury

Infections

Birth defects

High Temperatures

Infertility


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Infertility Treatment

  • Surgery

  • Fertility drugs

  • Sperm donor

  • Assisted Reproduction

  • Surrogate Motherhood


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Pregnancy

  • 13 week trimesters

  • Tests

    • Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)

  • Early signs and symptoms

    • Missed menstrual period

    • Softening of the uterus

      • Hager’s sign


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Continual change in the Women’s Body

  • Uterus size

  • Forth Month

  • Breast changes

    • 8th week

    • 10th week

      • colostrum

  • Muscles and Ligaments loosen

  • Weight Gain


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Changes During the Later Stages of Pregnancy

  • Increased needs placed on the mother.

  • Braxton hicks contractions.

  • Lightening.

  • Emotional responses to Pregnancy.


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Fetal Development

  • First Trimester

    • Blastocyst

    • Embryo - End of second week

    • Outermost shell

    • All major body structures are formed between 2nd and 9th week

    • 2nd Month - Fetus

  • Second Trimester

    • Fetus grows to about 14 inches and 2 pounds

  • Third Trimester

    • Fetus gains protective fat layers, Respiratory and Digestive organs develop


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Diagnosing Fetal Abnormalities

  • Ultrasonography

  • Amniocentesis

  • Chorionic Villus sampling

  • Triple marker screen (TMS)

  • Fetal programming


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Basics of Prenatal Care

  • Regular medical checkups

  • Blood tests

  • An appropriate diet

  • Avoidance of alcohol, tobacco, other drugs, and any infections that may harm the fetus

  • Reasonable exercise

  • Preparation for childbirth


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Complications

  • Ectopic pregnancy

  • Spontaneous Abortion, or miscarriage

  • Preeclampsia/eclampsia

  • Low-birth Weight (LBW)

  • Infant Mortality

    • SIDS


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Choices in Childbirth

  • Who is going to assist with delivery?

  • Where is the baby going to be delivered?


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Labor and Delivery

  • Entire process 2-36 hours.

  • First stage of Labor.

    • 13 hours for a first birth.

    • Hormonal changes.

    • Contractions.

    • Mucus plug is expelled and amniotic sac may rupture.

    • Transition.


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Childbirth

  • Second Stage of Labor

    • Baby slowly pushed into birth canal

    • Baby squeezes through pelvis

    • Head is usually delivered first

    • Umbilical cord is cut

  • Third Stage of Labor

    • Delivery of the placenta

  • Apgar Scale of the Baby

  • Cesarean deliveries


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Postpartum Period

  • 3 months following childbirth.

  • Critical family adjustment.

  • Vaginal delivery leave hospital 1-3 days.

  • Cesarean section 3-5 days.

  • Breastfeeding.

  • Postpartum depression.



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