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# Rules - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Rules. “rules, play, culture”. Rules of Tic-Tac-Toe. Play occurs on a 3 by 3 grid of 9 squares. Two players take turns marking empty squares, the first marking X’s, the second O’s. A row is any three squares on the grid, adjacent diagonally, vertically or horizontally.

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## PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Rules' - EllenMixel

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### Rules

“rules, play, culture”

• Play occurs on a 3 by 3 grid of 9 squares.

• Two players take turns marking empty squares, the first marking X’s, the second O’s.

• A row is any three squares on the grid, adjacent diagonally, vertically or horizontally.

• If one player places three of the same marks in a row, the player wins.

• If the spaces are all filled and there is no winner, the game ends in a draw.

COSC 4126 rules

• e.g. rules are distinct from aesthetics

• rules specify the constitution of the deck used in a card game (jokers included?)

• the formal relationship of the cards is part of the rules (e.g. 4 parallel sets of 13 ordered values) but the suits (diamonds, hearts, spades, clubs) and ordered sequences (A,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,J,Q,K) are not

COSC 4126 rules

• strategies are not rules

• Two players take turns marking empty squares, the first marking X’s, the second O’s.

is a rule of Tic-Tac-Toe but

• If an opponent has two marks in a row, place a mark to fill the third in the row.

is a strategy

COSC 4126 rules

Rules: guidelines that direct, restrict or guide behaviour

• etiquette: rules of polite behaviour

• laws: rules of legal behaviour

• policies: rules of acceptable activity

COSC 4126 rules

• limit/restrict player action – what can be done with the artifacts of the game

• are unambiguous and explicit

• are shared by all players (does not imply symmetry)

• are fixed

• are binding

• are repeatable / portable

COSC 4126 rules

• game rules create artificial, clear conditions inside the magic circle

• a temporary escape from the ambiguous, shifting, unfair conditions of real life.

COSC 4126 rules

• the formal structure of games can be regarded as a parameter space where the current state of the game is a point in the parameter space

• rules define the possible edges in the space connecting states

• a particular game is a path through the state space

COSC 4126 rules

• Tic-Tac-Toe is a set of 9 parameters, each of which can take on three values: {X, O,e}

• The start state of the game space is

[e,e,e,e,e,e,e,e,e]

• [e,e,e,X,e,e,e,e,e] is connected to the start state by an edge but there is no path to [e,e,O,e,O,e,e,e,e]

COSC 4126 rules

• operational

• constituative (sic)

• implicit

COSC 4126 rules

• Two players alternate turns.

• On your turn, pick a number from 1 to 9; you may not pick a number already chosen.

• If any three of your numbers add to 15 you win.

Let’s play….

COSC 4126 rules

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

COSC 4126 rules

2

9

4

7

5

3

6

1

8

The space of Tic-Tac-Toe is isomorphic with the space of 3 to 15

they share a mathematical structure below the level of the rules

COSC 4126 rules

• What if O player refuses to move?

X

O

O

X

X

implicit rules can be formalized (e.g. clock in chess matches) and often must be considered explicitly in digital games

COSC 4126 rules

• operational

• constituative

• implicit

COSC 4126 rules

• rules of play

• guidelines for players

• usually the explicitly written “rules of the game”

COSC 4126 rules

• underlying formal structures – the formal game space

• logical / mathematical rules –the parameters and algorithms of the coded game

COSC 4126 rules

• all players begin with value total of zero

• players alternate turns adding a random value of 1 to 6 to their total

• first player with to achieve value total of 100 wins

• if the random value would take the total beyond 100, it is not added

• if a player achieves a value in this table, the other value in the pair is substituted

value

8

16

28

44

67

71

83

96

substitute

19

23

7

30

79

47

55

72

COSC 4126 rules

• how to measure progress

• write score, amass chips, follow number line

• how to make random move

• throw die, use spinner, draw card

• how to substitute values

• look-up table, links on line

COSC 4126 rules

in code

• constituative rules are coded in the underlying game algorithms

• operational rules are coded in the interface

question for educational game:

where is the knowledge to be learned?

COSC 4126 rules

• etiquette, sportsmanship, other rules of behaviour

• infinite in number

• “house rules” - may not have some of the ‘qualities’

• are unambiguous and explicit

• are shared by all players (does not imply symmetry)

• are fixed

• are binding

• are repeatable / portable

COSC 4126 rules

• constituative rules and operational rules both determine a game’s identity

•  both are part of creation of meaning for the players

• action and response involves both

COSC 4126 rules

• formal (mathematical / algorithmic) model

• operational, concrete model

dictionary

defines relation between abstract symbols and operations

and

concrete objects and player actions

COSC 4126 rules

• game core as constituative model

• interface – inputs plus display plus sound as operational model

COSC 4126 rules

• The core of good design is in the operationalization of the constituative rules.

• Salen and Zimmerman, p.136-7, 149

• Designs can be evaluated for meaning by the criteria of

discernability and integration

COSC 4126 rules

• variations on Tic-Tac-Toe

• variations on Chutes and Ladders

compare with interface alternatives:

e.g. – inputting an integer:

• type in text field; select from menu; position a slider; click on a button

COSC 4126 rules

• original idea can be at either level – constituative or operational