Rules

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# Rules - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Rules. “rules, play, culture”. Rules of Tic-Tac-Toe. Play occurs on a 3 by 3 grid of 9 squares. Two players take turns marking empty squares, the first marking X’s, the second O’s. A row is any three squares on the grid, adjacent diagonally, vertically or horizontally.

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## PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Rules' - EllenMixel

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Presentation Transcript

### Rules

“rules, play, culture”

Rules of Tic-Tac-Toe
• Play occurs on a 3 by 3 grid of 9 squares.
• Two players take turns marking empty squares, the first marking X’s, the second O’s.
• A row is any three squares on the grid, adjacent diagonally, vertically or horizontally.
• If one player places three of the same marks in a row, the player wins.
• If the spaces are all filled and there is no winner, the game ends in a draw.

COSC 4126 rules

Which game structure is part of the rules?
• e.g. rules are distinct from aesthetics
• rules specify the constitution of the deck used in a card game (jokers included?)
• the formal relationship of the cards is part of the rules (e.g. 4 parallel sets of 13 ordered values) but the suits (diamonds, hearts, spades, clubs) and ordered sequences (A,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,J,Q,K) are not

COSC 4126 rules

Which game structure is part of the rules?
• strategies are not rules
• Two players take turns marking empty squares, the first marking X’s, the second O’s.

is a rule of Tic-Tac-Toe but

• If an opponent has two marks in a row, place a mark to fill the third in the row.

is a strategy

COSC 4126 rules

Game rules compared to rules in other activities

Rules: guidelines that direct, restrict or guide behaviour

• etiquette: rules of polite behaviour
• laws: rules of legal behaviour
• policies: rules of acceptable activity

COSC 4126 rules

Qualities of rules
• limit/restrict player action – what can be done with the artifacts of the game
• are unambiguous and explicit
• are shared by all players (does not imply symmetry)
• are fixed
• are binding
• are repeatable / portable

COSC 4126 rules

Rules in context
• game rules create artificial, clear conditions inside the magic circle
• a temporary escape from the ambiguous, shifting, unfair conditions of real life.

COSC 4126 rules

Game space and rules
• the formal structure of games can be regarded as a parameter space where the current state of the game is a point in the parameter space
• rules define the possible edges in the space connecting states
• a particular game is a path through the state space

COSC 4126 rules

Game space example
• Tic-Tac-Toe is a set of 9 parameters, each of which can take on three values: {X, O,e}
• The start state of the game space is

[e,e,e,e,e,e,e,e,e]

• [e,e,e,X,e,e,e,e,e] is connected to the start state by an edge but there is no path to [e,e,O,e,O,e,e,e,e]

COSC 4126 rules

Categories of rules in games
• operational
• constituative (sic)
• implicit

COSC 4126 rules

3 to 15: another game
• Two players alternate turns.
• On your turn, pick a number from 1 to 9; you may not pick a number already chosen.
• If any three of your numbers add to 15 you win.

Let’s play….

COSC 4126 rules

Pick a number…

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

COSC 4126 rules

3 to 15 == Tic-Tac-Toe

2

9

4

7

5

3

6

1

8

The space of Tic-Tac-Toe is isomorphic with the space of 3 to 15

they share a mathematical structure below the level of the rules

COSC 4126 rules

Implicit rules of games
• What if O player refuses to move?

X

O

O

X

X

implicit rules can be formalized (e.g. clock in chess matches) and often must be considered explicitly in digital games

COSC 4126 rules

Categories of rules in games
• operational
• constituative
• implicit

COSC 4126 rules

operational rules
• rules of play
• guidelines for players
• usually the explicitly written “rules of the game”

COSC 4126 rules

constituative rules
• underlying formal structures – the formal game space
• logical / mathematical rules –the parameters and algorithms of the coded game

COSC 4126 rules

constituative rules - example
• all players begin with value total of zero
• players alternate turns adding a random value of 1 to 6 to their total
• first player with to achieve value total of 100 wins
• if the random value would take the total beyond 100, it is not added
• if a player achieves a value in this table, the other value in the pair is substituted

value

8

16

28

44

67

71

83

96

substitute

19

23

7

30

79

47

55

72

COSC 4126 rules

Making constituative rules operational
• how to measure progress
• write score, amass chips, follow number line
• how to make random move
• throw die, use spinner, draw card
• how to substitute values
• look-up table, links on line

COSC 4126 rules

Making constituative rules operational

in code

• constituative rules are coded in the underlying game algorithms
• operational rules are coded in the interface

question for educational game:

where is the knowledge to be learned?

COSC 4126 rules

implicit rules
• etiquette, sportsmanship, other rules of behaviour
• infinite in number
• “house rules” - may not have some of the ‘qualities’
• are unambiguous and explicit
• are shared by all players (does not imply symmetry)
• are fixed
• are binding
• are repeatable / portable

COSC 4126 rules

Designing a game
• constituative rules and operational rules both determine a game’s identity
•  both are part of creation of meaning for the players
• action and response involves both

COSC 4126 rules

Designing a game
• formal (mathematical / algorithmic) model
• operational, concrete model

dictionary

defines relation between abstract symbols and operations

and

concrete objects and player actions

COSC 4126 rules

Designing a digital game
• game core as constituative model
• interface – inputs plus display plus sound as operational model

COSC 4126 rules

Elegant design
• The core of good design is in the operationalization of the constituative rules.
• Salen and Zimmerman, p.136-7, 149
• Designs can be evaluated for meaning by the criteria of

discernability and integration

COSC 4126 rules

Examples
• variations on Tic-Tac-Toe
• variations on Chutes and Ladders

compare with interface alternatives:

e.g. – inputting an integer:

• type in text field; select from menu; position a slider; click on a button

COSC 4126 rules

Designing a game
• original idea can be at either level – constituative or operational