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Notes 3/25 Essays back end of class Quiz Thursday 3/27 No items today What about those boxes?. Today:. The Seams of Pangea Close!!!. The End of Prehistory!!. World Systems Begin!!. Spanish and Mexican SW Environmental History. Historical Documents Methods Spanish Explorers & Climate

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Notes 3/25

Essays back end of class

Quiz Thursday 3/27

No items today

What about those boxes?


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Today:

The Seams of Pangea Close!!!

The End of Prehistory!!

World Systems Begin!!


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Spanish and MexicanSW Environmental History

  • Historical Documents Methods

  • Spanish Explorers & Climate

  • Huge cultural & Technological differences

  • Spanish History and Institutions

    • Crown and Church

  • Mexican Period (very brief)


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Historical Methods: Examples

  • Inscriptions– El Morro NM

  • Diaries, including indirect observations

    • First robin of spring etc.

  • Governmental records (census)

  • Church Records (birth/death/marriage)

  • Private estate records (taxes)

  • Land survey records/scarred trees


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Temporal proximity?

Spatial proximity?

Expert or amateur?

Changes in recorders?

Scaled data or opinions?

28°F. vs. “Very cold”

Historical Methods: Eyewitness Accounts


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Historical Documents: Can They Be Trusted?

  • Purpose of document?

  • Biased recorder?

    • Extreme events

    • Budget motives

  • Was the witness willing to tell the truth?

  • Independent corroboration** KEY***


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Worlds Collide: Columbian Consequences

  • Columbus—1492,1493, 1498, 1502

Cortez—1521--Mexico

Pizarro—1532--Peru

http://www.enchantedlearning.com/explorers/


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Spanish Explorers/Colonizers of the Southwest

  • Alvar Nunez de Cabeza de Vaca

Francisco Vázquez de Coronado

don Juan de Oñate

don Diego de Vargas


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Spanish Explorers of the Southwest

  • Francisco Vázquez de Coronado

    • Search for 7 Cities of Cibola

    • 1540-1542

    • 300 Spaniards

    • 700 Indian Auxiliaries

    • 1000s of head of Livestock

    • An INVASION


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to Pecos

Zuni

Tucson

Coronado’s

Route in AZ?

  • Maps lost

  • Documents vague

  • Names ambiguous

    • Despoblado ???

    • Disease???

  • Native guides may have been lost

    • No longer familiar with AZ Highlands?

Culiacan


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Coronado and Climate Chama=Red, Jemez=Black

1532-1548


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1598: Don Juan de Oñate

  • Lead 500 colonists from Mexico to New Mexico

  • Livestock, supplies

  • Traveled through Rio Grande Pueblo country

  • First Spanish settlement in the American Southwest, near Santa Fe.

  • Fighting between the Spanish and Native Americans--- Acoma


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Onate and ClimateChama=Red, Jemez=Black

1598

1610


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Revolt and Reconquestencomienda= tributerepartimiento=paid forced labor

  • 1680 Pueblo Revolt

    • Puebloans organized and revolted against Spanish settlements

    • Pope-- Pecos

    • Spaniards retreated to El Paso

  • 1692 Reconquest

    • don Diego de Vargas



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Yalu’s Question?

  • Intelligence?

    • Racist

  • Technological ability?

    • Proximate

  • Cold vs. warm climate?

    • Exceptions exist


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Continental Axes Differ

  • Easier to share ideas & plants across longitude

  • Latitudinal sharing hindered by climate, environmental barriers


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Domestication dates

  • Early in Eurasia

  • Late in the Americas

    • Little independent domestication in SW


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Mammalian Domestication

  • Few candidates in the Americas (Llama, Alpaca)

  • In the SW: turkey and dog only


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Infectious Disease

  • Eurasians evolved with it, Americans didn’t

  • Germs could invade prior to the people

  • Devastating– 95% Mortality?


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Modern Homework: Disease

Influenza Pandemic 1918

  • Killed: 20 M world wide

  • Infected 25% of pop

  • Killed 600,000 US

Most deaths:

Sept-Nov

Most deaths: 20-40 y/olds


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According to Diamond:

  • Environmental determinism

    • Grand-scale geography key

  • Eurasians had environmental advantages

    • Domesticated plants and animals early

    • Shared ideas easily

    • Developed metallurgy and writing

    • Co-evolved with infectious diseases

  • Dominated Americans at first contact


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Environmental Determinism (ED) vs. Environmentalism

  • ED = Environment sole determinant

    • Equatorial cultures unproductive: hot

    • Temperate cultures productive cooler

    • Racist, now discredited

  • Environmentalism

    • Environmental exerts influence, but not sole determinant

    • Culture plays a major role


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More Spanish Explorers of the Southwest

  • Padre Eusebio Francisco Kino

    • 1692-1711

    • Reached Tucson

    • Jesuit

    • Technology

    • Livestock

    • Agriculture

What did he see?


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Spanish Presidios

  • Military Forts

  • Protection

    • Indian Raiding

  • Livestock (cattle, horses) abundant

  • Farming nearby

  • Tucson, Tubac, El Paso

  • Ended in 1821.


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Spanish Missions

  • San Xavier del Bac (White Dove of the Desert)

    • Kino 1692

    • 1770s rebuilt by Franciscans

    • Just SW of Tucson

    • Still active church

    • Still active farming

  • Tumacácori.

http://www.smrc-missiontours.com/


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European  Native American Exchange

  • Cattle, Horses

  • Sheep, Goats, Pigs

  • Citrus, Figs

  • Metal tools

  • Guns

  • Distilled Alcohol

  • Epidemic Diseases

  • Writing


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Corn

Beans

Squash

Turkey

Chili Pepper

Tomatillo

Sunflower

Walnut

Acorn

Mesquite Bean

Agave

Pine Nut

Amaranth

Chocolate

Native American  European Exchange


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1800s Historical Dates

  • Mexican Independence 1821

  • Mexican-American War 1846

  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1848

  • Gadsden Purchase 1854


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Mexican Independence, 1821

  • Several large stock grants in AZ, 1820s

  • Abandoned 1830s and 1840s

    • Apache raiding


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Spanish-Mexican SW

  • Historical observations of people and environments

    • Not without limitations

  • Introduction of new environmental facets

    • Domesticated animals

    • Wheat

    • Diseases

  • Beginning of grazing in SW


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