slide1
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
In response to the paradigma shift FROM SURVIVAL TO QUALITY OF LIFE (the greatest ever) : a progressive evolutionary worldview

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 68

In response to the paradigma shift FROM SURVIVAL TO QUALITY OF LIFE (the greatest ever) : a progressive evolutionary w - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 256 Views
  • Uploaded on

In response to the paradigma shift FROM SURVIVAL TO QUALITY OF LIFE (the greatest ever) : a progressive evolutionary worldview . ECCO Jan. 25th 2007 Jan Bernheim Vrije Universiteit Brussel [email protected] A poorly prepared project takes three times as long as planned.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' In response to the paradigma shift FROM SURVIVAL TO QUALITY OF LIFE (the greatest ever) : a progressive evolutionary w' - EllenMixel


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

In response to the paradigma shift FROM SURVIVAL TO QUALITY OF LIFE (the greatest ever) :a progressive evolutionary worldview

ECCO Jan. 25th 2007

Jan Bernheim

Vrije Universiteit Brussel

[email protected]

a poorly prepared project takes three times as long as planned

A poorly prepared project takes three times as long as planned

A well prepared project takes twice as long as planned

suffering as the default state of the human condition
Suffering as the default state of the human condition
  • Nature is indifferent to suffering: only survival matters
  • Examples: spider wasps, predators
  •  Escapisms: renunciation (oriental philosophies) or metaphysical transcendency (religions, mysticism, the eternal life of the soul…)
challenges 1 4
Challenges1/4
  • The old discourses, religions and communism, for example, are discredited.
  • Richard Dawkins (The Delusion of Religion, 2006) : religions are pernicious because:

- Fallacious

- Calamitous

- Obstructive for progress

slide9

President Bush says God talks to him. If he had said it was through his hairdryer, there would have been a national emergency. I for one don’t see what the hairdryer adds to the ridicule of the situation Sam HarrisIn: Letter to a Christian Nation 2006

pros and cons of religions
Pros and cons of religions
  • “Good people do good things and bad people do bad things. But for good people tot do bad things, it takes religion.”

Stephen Weinberg

  • “And for bad people to do good things also that takes religion.”

Freeman Dyson

challenges 2 4
CHALLENGES2/4
  • The old discourses filled needs. Their discredit leaves voids:
  • Believers are happier, give more to charities…
  • Unbelievers know better what they don’t believe than what they do believe.
  • A world without God is cold and gloomy, without transcendence.
  • Can one replace religions by a scientific worldview that would be at least as satisfying?
challenges 3 4 alternatives to the great discourses
Challenges 3/4Alternatives to the great discourses?
  • Grotesque worldviews (fundamentalisms, New Age…)?
  • Relativisms?
  • Consumerism and Postmodernism: vacuity as a worldview.
challenge 4 4
Challenge4/4
  • From heteronomous (communitarianisms, authoritarianisms), humans have become autonomous
  • ( individualism).

(Also according to modern christians, e.g. Roger Lenaerts S.J.: De droom van Nebuchadnezar, Lannoo, 2004)

what to expect from a worldview help in confronting the big questions
What to expect from a worldview : help in confronting the big questions
  • What exists?: an ontology
  • Where do things come from?: an ontogenesis
  • The purpose of life?: an axiology
  • Where are we going?: a futurology
  • Truth and un-truth?: an epistemology
  • How to live in uncertainty? a life praxis
  • An explanation of behaviours?: a praxeology
  • Good and bad?: an ethics
  • A rational framework for emotions and mysteries
objective
Objective
  • Can we, following Leo Apostel,construct a contemporary worldview based on the sciences and multidisciplinarity?
  • Let’s rise to the challenge: the Darwinian (~ matter) and historical(~ time) perspectives lead to a

progressive evolutionary worldview

evolutionary theory short instructions for the user 1 3
Evolutionary Theory :short instructions for the user1/3
  • 1) variation and 2) selection of better fit variants
    • Evolution is both conservative and progressive: what works well persists and what works better is selected.
    • It obtains for both genes (units of biological transmission) and for memes (units of cultural transmission)
    • Fitness for what? For capacity of survival and procreation
evolutionary theory short instructions for the user 2 3
Evolutionary Theory :short instructions for the user2/3
  • The two imperatives of de existence are:SURVIVAL and PROCREATION
  • In a competitive world, with limited resources, the two survival strategies for which we were selected are :

- agression - egoism

and

- co-operation - altruism

avatars of aggressivity
Avatars of Aggressivity
  • violence,
  • elimination,
  • appropriation,
  • submission,
  • exclusion,
  • exploitation of nature and humans
  • ....
avatars of co operation
Avatars of co-operation
  • Kindness, friendship, love (in that order),
  • solidarity, compassion, care (in that order),
  • benevolence, helpfulness
  • credibility,
  • justice

 in short: what we call the VIRTUES, a universal ethics, “secular humanism”, the inter-religious common language proposed by the catholic ethicist Tristram Engelhardt MD.

what to expect from a worldview help in confronting the big questions25
What to expect from a worldview : help in confronting the big questions
  • What exists?: an ontology
  • Where do things come from?: an ontogenesis
  • The purpose of life?: an axiology
  • Where are we going?: a futurology
  • Truth and un-truth?: an epistemology
  • How to live in uncertainty? a life praxis
  • An explanation of behaviours?: a praxeology
  • Good and bad?: an ethics
  • A rational framework for emotions and mysteries
agression and co operation as survival strategies
Agression and co-operation as survival strategies
  • A mix of both strategies is necessary for survival.
  • Problem: Our genes by and large are those of the hunters- gatherers of 10.000 years ago, selected for what THEN was the best mix of agression and co-operation: we’re ‘misfits’, poorly adapted to the present world, which is far more complex.
an ethics
An ETHICS

Behavioural mix adapted to society

AGGRESSION

CO-OPERATION

Time, Complexity

consequences of increasing complexity
CONSEQUENCES OF INCREASING COMPLEXITY
  • The more complex a society, the more opportunity for aggression & co-operation,
  • More interactions = more feedback

 aggression inhibited

 co-operation rewarded

an ethics29
An ETHICS

Time, Complexity

Behavioural mix adapted

to society

Acceleration

AGGRESSION

CO-OPERATION

how do we cope with our genetic misfitness
How do we cope with our genetic misfitness?
  • We compensate for our obsolete genes by memes: horizontally and vertically transmissible cultural factors, such as:

behaviours, judeo-christian norms et laws or secular humanistic principles ...

  •  Civilisation is a means to cope with our obsolete genes.
an ethics31
An ETHICS

Time, Complexity

Behavioural mix adapted to society

AGRESSION

Genetic

mix

CO-OPERATION

an ethics32
An ETHICS

Time, Complexity

Behavioural mix adapted for society

AGRESSION

CULTUREL AJUSTMENT

NEEDS

Genetic

mix

CO-OPERATION

what to expect from a worldview help in confronting the big questions33
What to expect from a worldview : help in confronting the big questions
  • What exists?: an ontology
  • Where do things come from?: an ontogenesis
  • The purpose of life?: an axiology
  • Where are we going?: a futurology
  • Truth and un-truth?: an epistemology
  • How to live in uncertainty? a life praxis
  • An explanation of behaviours?: a praxeology
  • Good and bad?: an ethics
  • A rational framework for emotions and mysteries
an ontogenesis where do we come from
An ONTOGENESIS: where do we come from?

Ontogenesis repeats phylogenesis / development re-iterates history (Haeckel’s law)

  • For anatomy
  • In the mental and behavioral realm: developmental psychology
  • For societies and civilisations: modernity

versus

the anteriority (not inferiority!) of alternative societal models

what to expect from a worldview help in confronting the big questions35
What to expect from a worldview : help in confronting the big questions
  • What exists?: an ontology
  • Where do things come from?: an ontogenesis
  • The purpose of life?: an axiology
  • Where are we going?: a futurology
  • Truth and un-truth?: an epistemology
  • How to live in uncertainty? a life praxis
  • An explanation of behaviours?: a praxeology
  • Good and bad?: an ethics
  • A rational framework for emotions and mysteries
the purpose of life an axiology
The purpose of life?: an AXIOLOGY
  • From survival to QOL: the greatest revolution ever
  • Its utilitarian ethics, suffering and enjoyment as the measure of all things (JS Mill, J. Bentham, Peter Singer, …) also provides the purpose of life: maximising the ratio of enjoyment and suffering
definitions of happiness
Definitions of Happiness
  • Relativistic, from Aristotle to postmodernism
  • Escapistic
  • Evolutionary: sustainable pleasure, i.e . the feeling one has when the indicators for satisfaction of needs are favourable : food, shelter, love, growth and (Maslow!) self-actualisation
a tall order to measure subjective well being the perception quality of life i e
A tall order:to measure subjective well-being, the perception quality of lifei.e.

To quantify what is qualitative

To make objective what is subjective

slide42

Conventional Question (CQ)

Biographical Question (ACSA)

Conventional question versus Anamnestic Comparative Self Assessment (ACSA). Which global question is better suited?

OR

examples of sequential acsa measures during disease
Examples of sequential ACSA measures during disease
  • Bernheim, J.L., and M. Buyse: 1984, J. Psychosoc. Oncol. 1. 25‑38
slide44

Discrimination (inter-group comparisons)& Sensitivity to objective change (after life- and QOL-saving transplantation in End-Stage-Liver Disease )

this was a snapshot
This was a snapshot.

Next question:

does happiness progress?

objective indicators of subjective happiness
Health

Wealth

Security

Liberties

Equality

Tolerance

Information, knowledge

In short:

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)

OBJECTIVE indicators of (SUBJECTIVE) happiness
liberties self determination and control
Liberties, Self-determination and Control
  • Over death: palliative care and euthanasia.
liberties self determination and control57
Liberties, Self-determination and Control
  • Over death: palliative care and euthanasia.
  • Over procreation.
  • Over sex life.
  • Over partner choice.
conclusion
CONCLUSION

Yes, if

  • Happiness is the highest good,
  • And the evolution of the objective conditions for happiness is the indicator of progress,
  • then there is objective progress.
what to expect from a worldview help in confronting the big questions59
What to expect from a worldview : help in confronting the big questions
  • What exists?: an ontology
  • Where do things come from?: an ontogenesis
  • The purpose of life?: an axiology
  • Where are we going?: a futurology
  • Truth and un-truth?: an epistemology
  • How to live in uncertainty? a life praxis
  • An explanation of behaviours?: a praxeology
  • Good and bad?: an ethics
  • A rational framework for emotions and mysteries
how do we live a political economical praxeology
How do we live? A political-economical PRAXEOLOGY
  • The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: condition of happiness
  • NEW phenomena :

-> the entrance of ethics in Realpolitik

-> intolerance for unhappiness

-> the extinction of generation conflicts

what to expect from a worldview help in confronting the big questions62
What to expect from a worldview : help in confronting the big questions
  • What exists?: an ontology
  • Where do things come from?: an ontogenesis
  • The purpose of life?: an axiology
  • Where are we going?: a futurology
  • Truth and un-truth?: an epistemology
  • How to live in uncertainty? a life praxis
  • An explanation of behaviours?: a praxeology
  • Good and bad?: an ethics
  • A rational framework for emotions and mysteries
what to expect from a worldview help in confronting the big questions63
What to expect from a worldview : help in confronting the big questions
  • What exists?: an ontology
  • Where do things come from?: an ontogenesis
  • The purpose of life?: an axiology
  • Where are we going?: a futurology
  • Truth and un-truth?: an epistemology
  • How to live in uncertainty? a life praxis
  • An explanation of behaviours?: a praxeology
  • Good and bad?: an ethics
  • A rational framework for emotions and mysteries
the progressive evolutionary worldview in everyday life a life praxis
The progressive evolutionary worldview in everyday life: a LIFE PRAXIS
  • Good deeds: in complex systems, small actions may have great consequences.
  • Hope is a rationel use of probability / Risk acceptation
  • It is highly irrationnal not to take emotions into account
what to expect from a worldview help in confronting the big questions65
What to expect from a worldview : help in confronting the big questions
  • What exists?: an ontology
  • Where do things come from?: an ontogenesis
  • The purpose of life?: an axiology
  • Where are we going?: a futurology
  • Truth and un-truth?: an epistemology
  • How to live in uncertainty? a life praxis
  • An explanation of behaviours?: a praxiology
  • Good and bad?: an ethics
  • A rational framework for emotions and mysteries
scientific emotionality evolutionary spirituality from spinoza to teilhard to apostel 1 2
Feeling the presence of God

Feeling deep peace and harmony

A wish to come closer to God

Feeling the world becoming ever more complex, and entropy decreasing

Profound satisfaction with the reality of progress and our place as the temporary endpoint of the evolution of living beings at the heart of the continuum between elementary particles and the universe

Wish to understand ever more about the cosmos, nature and ourselves

Scientific Emotionality, evolutionary spirituality.From Spinoza to Teilhard to Apostel 1/2
a progressive evolutionary worldview
A progressive evolutionary worldview

Provides

  • Not a road, but a roadmap
  • Not roots, but a GPS
  • Not a destination, but reference points

(you need lighthouses, but the last thing you want to do is head for them)

ad