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Chapter 4: Prenatal Development, Birth, and the Newborn. Module 4.1 From Conception to Birth Module 4.2 Influences on Prenatal Development Module 4.3 Happy Birthday! Module 4.4 The Newborn. Children and Their Development, Cdn Ed. - Robert Kail. 4.1 From Conception to Birth.

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Chapter 4: Prenatal Development, Birth, and the Newborn

Module 4.1 From Conception to Birth

Module 4.2 Influences on Prenatal Development

Module 4.3 Happy Birthday!

Module 4.4 The Newborn

Children and Their Development, Cdn Ed. - Robert Kail


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4.1 From Conception to Birth

Period of the Zygote (Weeks 1-2)

Period of the Embryo (Weeks 3-8)

Period of the Fetus (Weeks 9-38)

© 2009 Pearson Education Canada Inc.


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Begins when egg is fertilized in the fallopian tube

Period of rapid cell division

Ends 2 weeks later when the zygote is implanted in the wall of the uterus

4.1 Period of the Zygote

© 2009 Pearson Education Canada Inc.


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Period of the Zygote

© 2009 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

4.1: Period of the Zygote


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From 3 to 8 weeks after conception

Body parts are formed during this period

Embryo rests in the amnion filled with amniotic fluid

Umbilical cord joins embryo to placenta

4.1 Period of the Embryo

© 2009 Pearson Education Canada Inc.


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Prenatal Structures

© 2009 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

4.1: Period of the Embryo


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From 9 weeks after conception to birth

Increase in size and systems begin to function

Age of viability: occurs at 22 to 28 weeks and fetus has a chance to survive

4.1 Period of the Fetus

© 2009 Pearson Education Canada Inc.


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4.2 Influences on Prenatal Development

General Risk Factors

Teratogens: Diseases, Drugs, and Environmental Hazards

How Teratogens Influence Prenatal Development

Prenatal Diagnosis and Treatment

© 2009 Pearson Education Canada Inc.


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Nutrition: adequate amount of food, protein, vitamins, & minerals

Stress: decreases oxygen to fetus, weakens mother’s immune system, and leads to unhealthy behaviors such as smoking or drinking alcohol

Mother’s Age: neither too young, nor too old is best

4.2 General Risk Factors

© 2009 Pearson Education Canada Inc.


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Many diseases pass through the placenta directly and attack the fetus; others attack at birth

Environmental hazards are treacherous because we’re often unaware of their presence

Potentially dangerous drugs are not limited to cocaine but include alcohol, caffeine, and aspirin

4.2 Teratogens: Diseases, Drugs, and Environmental Hazards

© 2009 Pearson Education Canada Inc.


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Even moderate amounts of alcohol during pregnancy can result in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD).

Problems associated with FASD can be physical (abnormal facial development, heart problems) and psychological (attentional, cognitive, and behavioural problems)

4.2 Teratogens: Diseases, Drugs, and Environmental Hazards

© 2009 Pearson Education Canada Inc.


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Teratogens are not universally harmful in

Teratogens harm particular structures at a particular point in development in particular animals

Impact depends on the dose

Damage is not always evident at birth

4.2 How Teratogens Influence Prenatal Development

© 2009 Pearson Education Canada Inc.


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Effects of Teratogens in

© 2009 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

4.2: How Teratogens Influence Prenatal Development


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Diagnosis: in ultrasound, amniocentesis, and chorionic villus sampling can detect physical deformities and genetic disorders

Treatment: fetal medicine and genetic engineering are experimental

4.2 Prenatal Diagnosis and Treatment

© 2009 Pearson Education Canada Inc.


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Prenatal Diagnosis in

Chorionic Villus Sampling

Amniocentesis

© 2009 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

4.2: Prenatal Diagnosis and Treatment


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4.3 Happy Birthday! in

Labor and Delivery

Approaches to Childbirth

Adjusting to Parenthood

Birth Complications

© 2009 Pearson Education Canada Inc.


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Stage 1: starts when the muscles of the uterus contract and ends when the cervix is fully enlarged (about 10 cm)

Stage 2: baby is pushed through the birth canal

Stage 3: placenta is expelled

4.3 Labor and Delivery

© 2009 Pearson Education Canada Inc.


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Three Stages of Labor ends when the cervix is fully enlarged (about 10 cm)

© 2009 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

4.3: Labor and Delivery


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Childbirth classes provide information about pregnancy and childbirth

Childbirth classes teach pain control through deep breathing, imagery, and supportive coaching

Mothers who attend classes use less medication during labor and feel more positive about labor and birth

4.3 Approaches to Childbirth

© 2009 Pearson Education Canada Inc.


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Many women see duolas and midwives as an antidote to the ‘medicalization’ of childbirth

A duola acts like a ‘coach’ during labour and delivery

A midwife provides care throughout the pregnancy and even after the birth

In some provinces, midwives are paid for by provincial health programs

4.3 Approaches to Childbirth

© 2009 Pearson Education Canada Inc.


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Parents must reorganize their old routines ‘medicalization’ of childbirth

Half of all new moms feel some irritation, resentment, and experience crying

10-15% feel more severe postpartum depression

Postpartum depression affects warmth and enthusiasm of mothering

4.3 Adjusting to Parenthood

© 2009 Pearson Education Canada Inc.


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Lack of oxygen ( ‘medicalization’ of childbirthhypoxia): often leads to surgical removal of the fetus (C-section)

Premature and small-for-date infants

Prematurity is less serious than being small- for-date

Infant mortality is relatively high in the United States compared to other industrialized countries

4.3 Birth Complications

© 2009 Pearson Education Canada Inc.


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Infant Mortality Rates ‘medicalization’ of childbirth

© 2009 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

4.3: Birth Complications


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4.4 The Newborn ‘medicalization’ of childbirth

Assessing the Newborn

The Newborn’s Reflexes

Newborn States

Perception and Learning in the Newborn

© 2009 Pearson Education Canada Inc.


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The Apgar assesses newborns’ health including activity, pulse, grimace, appearance, and respiration

The Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) is a comprehensive assessment of infants that includes measures of alertness and ability to interact with people

4.4 Assessing the Newborn

© 2009 Pearson Education Canada Inc.


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Newborns’ reflexes prepare them to interact with the world

Some reflexes are important to survival (e.g., rooting and sucking)

Some protect the newborn (e.g., blink and withdrawal)

Some are foundations for later motor behavior

4.4 The Newborn’s Reflexes

© 2009 Pearson Education Canada Inc.


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Four primary states: alert inactivity, waking activity, crying, sleeping

Three distinctive types of cries: hungry, mad, and basic

Half of newborns’ sleep is REM

Sleeping on one’s back may prevent SIDS

4.4 Newborn States

© 2009 Pearson Education Canada Inc.


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Back to Sleep Poster crying, sleeping

© 2009 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

4.4: Newborn States


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All the basic perceptual processes are operating at birth crying, sleeping

Newborns can see, hear, taste, smell, and feel (at some level)

Newborns can also learn and remember

4.4 Perception and Learning in the Newborn

© 2009 Pearson Education Canada Inc.


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