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Lecture 4. Everest. Mount Everest. 8850 meters Separates Nepal and Tibet 1953 – first successful climb By 1980, 100 climbers ascended to summit 1985 David Breashers guided wealthy Texas businessman, Dick Bass, to the top Started trend to commercial expeditions

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lecture 4

Lecture 4

Everest

mount everest
Mount Everest
  • 8850 meters
  • Separates Nepal and Tibet
  • 1953 – first successful climb
  • By 1980, 100 climbers ascended to summit
  • 1985
    • David Breashers guided wealthy Texas businessman, Dick Bass, to the top
    • Started trend to commercial expeditions
    • Less experienced people climbing
    • Profit was part of the goal
  • 1996
    • 846 successful ascents
    • 148 deaths
adventure consultant
Adventure Consultant
  • Established 1992
    • Robert Hall and Gary Ball
  • Experienced climbers
    • Seven Summits: 7 highest peaks on each of the 7 continents
    • Included Everest
    • Ball dies of cerebral edema amidst success
  • Cost: $65,000
  • 1994
    • Hall guided 39 clients
  • 1995
    • “100% Success”
    • Failed expedition due to extreme weather
  • 1996
    • Planned Everest expedition
hall s climbing team
Hall’s Climbing Team
  • Leader – Hall
  • Guides
    • Mike Groom
      • Climbed Everest without bottled oxygen
    • Andy Harris
      • No Everest experience
  • Helpers
    • Ang Dorje
    • 6 climbing sherpas
hall s recruited clients
Hall’s Recruited Clients
  • No experience
    • Beck Weathers, John Taske, Stuart Hutchison, John Krakauer
  • Unsuccessful attempts
    • Doug Hansen (H – 1995), Frank Fischbeck
  • Experience with other peaks
    • Lou Kasischke, Yasuko Namba
mountain madness
Mountain Madness
  • Established, 1984
    • Scott Fischer
    • Offered climbing instruction and guided experience
  • Fischer
    • Expert climber
    • 8000 peaks
    • Climbed Everest without supplemental oxygen on 4th attempt
    • Inspired by Hall’s 1994 successful guided climb
fischer s climbing team
Fischer’s Climbing Team
  • Leader – Fischer
  • Guides
    • Anatoli Boukreev
      • Climbed Everest without bottled oxygen
    • Neil Beidlman
      • No Everest experience
  • Helpers
    • Lopsang Jangbu
    • 7 climbing sherpas
fischer s clients
Fischer’s Clients
  • No experience
    • Kiev Schoening
    • Tim Madsen
  • Unsuccessful attempts
    • Sandy Hill Pittman
    • Dale Kruse (known to have altitude sickness)
  • Experiences
    • Pete Schoening (Legend, 68)
    • Lene Gammelgaard
    • Martin Adams
    • Charlotte Fox
journey to base camp
Journey to Base Camp
  • Base Camp
    • Shelter for climbers
    • Tents are maintained by sherpas
      • Food, drink, communication center
  • Fischer’s team arrives on April 8th
  • Hall’s team arrives on April 9th
  • Problems
    • Polluted air and unsanitary living conditions in villages cause respiratory and digestive ailments
    • Logistical problems
      • Fischer’s oxygen supply, tent, supplies
      • Time burden vs. planning and acclimating
reservations
Reservations
  • Boukreev
    • Readiness
    • Ability
    • Language difficulties
    • Prepare the mountain for people vs. prepare the people for the mountain
  • Krakauer
    • Normal people
    • No hard core climbers
  • Others
    • Team reliance
    • Self esteem
    • Guide climbing without supplemental oxygen
acclimatization
Acclimatization
  • Performed in Mid April
  • Strenuous activity
    • High altitude
    • Climbing mixed with rest and recovery
  • Major health issues to avoid
    • Altitude Pulmonary Edema
      • Swelling and/or fluid accumulation in the lungs that leads to impaired gas exchange and may cause respiratory failure
      • Must maintain adequate oxygenation
    • Altitude Cerebral Edema
      • An excess accumulation of water in the intra- and/or extra-cellular spaces of the brain
      • Must descend immediately or med-evac
oxygen issues
Oxygen Issues
  • Bottled oxygen necessary for final summit
  • Guides also should employ bottled oxygen for client safety
  • Pete Schoening started using bottled oxygen at base camp
  • Bottled oxygen was in limited supply
base camp to camp ii
Base Camp to Camp II
  • May 6th
  • Problems prior to climb
    • Insufficient number of radios
    • Lack of team spirit
  • Established 2 o’clock rule
    • If you aren’t at the top by two, it’s time to turn around. Darkness is not your friend.
  • Schoening (sr -F) becomes ill
    • Fischer accompanies him back to base camp then back to Camp II
  • Hansen (H) gets frost bite and frozen larynx
  • Hall forcibly encourages Krakauer and Hansen to continue
  • Fischer handles sherpa illness and death
  • Hall – my word is law
base camp to camp ii14
Base Camp to Camp II
  • Radios a joke
    • Only three
    • Held by each guide
  • Kruse (F) gets sick
    • Fischer accompanies him back to base camp
    • Friendship has him leave the team
  • Hall
    • Anyone can get up
    • The trick is getting down alive
camp ii to camp iii
Camp II to Camp III
  • May 8th
  • Harris (H – guide) gets hit by a small boulder
  • IMAX (Breashears) team goes back because of bad weather
  • Boukreev doubtful about weather
  • Kasischke (H) and Fischbeck (H) struggling
camp iv
Camp IV
  • May 9th
  • 60 mph wind speed
    • Erecting tents difficult
  • Hall’s plan
    • When weather calms, proceed to summit during midnight, return to Camp IV by nightfall
    • No set 2 o’clock rule
  • Hansen (H) health deteriorating
    • Emotionally driven by past failed attempts
summit day
Summit Day
  • May 9th, 11:30 PM teams depart Camp IV
  • Hall and Fischer at rear
  • Each client has two oxygen canisters
  • Problems
    • Taske (H), Hutchison (H), Kasischke (H), and Fischbeck (H) turn back before summit
    • 5:30 AM
      • Krakauer (H) and Ang Dorje (H – sherpa) discover no ropes affixed for remaining 500m
      • 1 hour wasted until all clients arrive
      • Lopsang Jangbu (F - sherpa) assisted Pitman (F) for 6 hours to lower camp
summit day18
Summit Day
  • Fischer remains at back to help struggling clients
    • His physical condition deteriorates
  • Weathers condition deteriorating
  • Clients opting to grab 3rd oxygen on the way up
  • Noon to 1PM
    • Ropes need to be affixed to Hillary Step
  • 1PM
    • Krakauer (H), Harris (H - guide), Boukreev (F – guide) reach summit
    • Beidlman (F – guide), Adams (F) follow
summit day19
Summit Day
  • Critical Error
    • Harris thought that no supplemental oxygen remained at south summit
  • 2:00 PM
    • No more of Fischer’s clients have reached summit
    • Beidlman (F – guide) wants to advise to turn back but feel too junior to advise Boukreev (F – guide) and Fischer
  • 2:30 PM
    • Hall and Groom (H – guide) reach summit with other clients
  • 3:45 PM
    • Fischer reaches summit
  • 4:00 PM
    • Hansen (H) reaches summit
    • Hall waited for Hansen
the descent
The Descent
  • Weather problems
    • Descent pace is very slow
  • Boukreev (F – guide) descended quickly to Camp IV
    • Decision questionable
  • Hall remained above Hillary Step
    • Could not provide oxygen to Hansen (H) by Harris’ (H – guide) report
    • Made it to South Summit
      • 6:00 PM Hall is still there
  • Fischer with serious heath problems
    • Lopsang (F – sherpa) goes to Camp IV for Boukreev
    • Boukreev stuck due to weather
the descent21
The Descent
  • 9:00 PM
    • Krakauer (H) and Adams (F) reach Camp IV
  • Beidlman (F – guide), Groom, 7 clients, 3 sherpas huddle together lost to wait for break in storm
  • Beidlman (F – guide), Groom (H – guide), Schoening (F), Gammelgaard (F) reach Camp IV
  • Boukreev (F – guide) rescues Pitman (F), Fox (F), Madsen (F), leaves Namba (H) and Weathers (H)
  • Hall radios that Hansen was dead and Hall is climbing down
  • Sherpa team cannot rescue Fischer
  • Weather makes it to Camp IV
  • May 12th
    • Hall, Fischer, Hansen, Namba, and Harris are dead
closing thoughts
Closing Thoughts
  • Recruitment
  • Competitiveness
  • Prestige
  • Profit
  • Experience
  • Arrogance
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