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Eating Disorders Among Athletes. Presentation by: Julie Cassara Hildeberto Campos Carolyn Gonzalez Gus M. Lasam Return to main page. Introduction.

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Eating disorders among athletes l.jpg

Eating Disorders Among Athletes

Presentation by:

Julie Cassara

Hildeberto Campos

Carolyn Gonzalez

Gus M. Lasam

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Introduction

Eating disorders, specifically anorexia and bulimia, continue to be on the rise among athletes in the sports of figure skating, wrestling and gymnastics.

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Outline

Findings

Causes

Statistics

Prevention

Treatment

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Most Common Types of Eating Disorders in Sports

Anorexia Nervosa

Bulimia Nervosa

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Psychological Characteristics of Anorexics

  • Preoccupied with dieting and being thin leading to excessive weight loss.

  • Have intense fear of fat and becoming fat.

  • Preoccupation with food and weight loss mask underlying psychological problems.

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Psychological Characteristics of Bulimics

  • Frequent episodes of binge eating.

  • Exercise compulsively.

  • Fasting.

  • Abuse laxatives/diuretics.

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Psychological Characteristics of Bulimics

  • Purging involves vomiting.

  • Often feels guilty after eating a meal.

  • No visible physical characteristics.

  • Uses self-destructive eating behavior to mask psychological problems.

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Types of Sports With High Risks for Eating Disorders

  • Gymnastics

  • Wrestling

  • Boxing

  • Figure skating

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Causes in Gymnastics

Standards Set by Society

Pressure from Parents

Pressure from Coaches

Pressure from Judges

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Standards Set by Society

“In 1976, the average gymnast was 5’3” tall

weighting 105 pounds, and in 1992, the average

gymnast was 4’9” weighing 88 pounds.”

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Pressure from Parents

Parents who are competitive, controlling or

perfectionists tend to push these behaviors on

their children.

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Pressure from Coaches

Coaches are guilty of criticizing gymnasts for the

need to be thin. A lot of the time coaches see

their athletes’ physiques as a reflection of

themselves.

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Pressure from Judges

Judges consider thinness a factor when scoring for

technical and artistic ability.

“In 1988, at a meet in Budapest, a US judge told

Christy Hendrich, one of the world’s top

gymnasts, that she was too fat and needed to lose

weight if she hoped to make the Olympic squad.”

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Causes Lead to Consequences

“On July 26, 1994, at age 22, Christy Hendrich died of multiple organ failure. She weighed only 47 pounds.”

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Population and Eating Disorders

  • Eating disorders among males and females are more prevalent among athletes then non athletes.

  • Eating disorders have a higher prevalence in the female athlete population, than in the male athlete population.

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Eating Disorders and Genders

  • The occurrence of eating disorders cases among female athletes is of 90 – 95%

  • Among females Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa are more prevalent

  • Among males self-induced vomiting, binging, abuse of laxatives and diuretics is more prevalent

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Females and Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa

  • In the female population the percentages of Bulimia Nervosa is higher than that of Anorexia Nervosa

  • 3% of women between the ages of 13 and 30 are bulimic, while 1% are Anorexic


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Females and Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa…continued

  • 10 to 20% of all anorexic patients admitted to the hospital for anorexia will eventually die from it

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Warning Signs

  • Excessive exercise outside of routine training period

  • Withdrawal from teammates

  • Inability to complete workouts

  • Menstrual irregularities

  • Loss of concentration

  • Restrictive dieting

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More Warning Signs

  • Purging through vomiting,diuretics or laxatives

  • Chronic fatigue

  • Weight loss

  • Changes in mood

  • Fainting

  • Light-headedness

  • Decreased stamina

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Prevention

  • One should be prepared to recognize and educate athletes on the symptoms and warning signs of eating disorders.

  • Educate athletes on the physical risks of maintaining a low body weight.

  • Set realistic goals, taking into account the individual athlete’s body type and shape.

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  • Promote total and healthy nutrition

  • Eliminate public weight-in and body-fat analyses

  • Provide a resource for emotional counseling

  • Encourage positive self-image and self –esteem

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More Preventions

  • Do not overplay the impact of weight on athletic performance

  • Recognize when healthy training regiments turn into obsessive regiments

  • Eliminate ridiculing or flippant remarks about body shape or weight

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Treatment

  • Hospitalization

  • Medication

  • Dental work

  • Individual counseling

  • Group counseling

  • Family counseling

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Conclusion

The key is Awareness of…

Symptoms

Consequences

Understanding

Education

Bottom line is…

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