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Science for Everyone: A Problem-Based Learning Approach. George Watson and Barbara Duch [email protected] Department of Physics and Astronomy and Institute for Transforming Undergraduate Education. University of Delaware.

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science for everyone a problem based learning approach
Science for Everyone:A Problem-Based Learning Approach

George Watson and Barbara Duch

[email protected]

Department of Physics and Astronomy

and

Institute for TransformingUndergraduate Education

University of Delaware

Science and Technology Education: Preparing Future Citizens1st IOSTE Symposium in Southern Europe, Paralimni, Cyprus

john dewey

John Dewey…

“True learning is based on discovery guided by mentoring rather than the transmission of knowledge.”

characteristics needed in college graduates
Characteristics Neededin College Graduates

High level of communication skills

Ability to define problems, gather and evaluate information, develop solutions

Team skills -- ability to work with others

Ability to use all of the above to address problems in a complex real-world setting

Quality Assurance in Undergraduate Education (1994) Wingspread Conference, ECS, Boulder, CO.

some of the recommendations from the carnegie foundation
Some of the Recommendationsfrom the Carnegie Foundation

Make research-based learning the standard.

Build inquiry-based learning throughout the four years.

Link communication skills and course work.

Use information technology effectively.

Cultivate a sense of community.

cooperative learning what the research shows
Cooperative Learning: What the research shows

Academic Success

higher achievement, including knowledge acquisition, accuracy, creativity in problem-solving, and higher reasoning level.

Attitude Effects

persistence towards goals, intrinsic motivation, applying learning in other situations, greater time on task

Johnson, Johnson, and Smith (1998 )

what is problem based learning
What is Problem-Based Learning?

PBL is an instructional method that

challenges students to “learn to learn,”

working cooperatively in groups

to seek solutions to real world problems.

PBL prepares students

to think critically and analytically, and

to find and use appropriate learning resources.

the principal idea behind pbl is
The principal idea behind PBL is…

that the starting point for learning should be a problem, a query, or a puzzle that the learner wishes to solve.”

(Bould, 1985:13)

what are the common features of pbl
What are the CommonFeatures of PBL?

Learning is initiated by a problem.

Problems are based on complex, real-world situations.

All information needed to solve problem is not initially given.

Students identify, find, and use appropriate resources.

Students work in permanent groups.

compelling features of pbl for new adapters
Compelling Features of PBLfor New Adapters

Models itself on how students learn.

With information overload, prepares students to be life-long learners.

More realistic curriculum prepares students for world outside the classroom.

Ensures more up-to-date materials, content.

Generates enthusiasm among faculty.

Boud and Feletti, 1998

pbl the process
PBL: The Process

Students are presented with a problem. They organize ideas and previous knowledge.

Students pose questions, defining what they know and don’t know.

Assign responsibility for questions, discuss resources.

Reconvene, explore newly learned information, refine questions.

the problem based learning cycle
The Problem-Based Learning Cycle

Overview

Problem, Project, or Assignment

Mini-lecture

Group Discussion

Whole Class Discussion

Preparation of Group “Product”

Research

Group Discussion

slide12

Silicon, Circuits, and the Digital Revolution

SCEN103 at the University of Delaware

http://www.physics.udel.edu/~watson/scen103/

slide13

The course:

SCEN103 in Spring 2000 was an Honors colloquium designed to introduce first-year students to some of the science behind high technology.

Designed to promote scientific and computer literacy and awareness, SCEN103 gives students an opportunity to leverage their interests in everyday devices and high-tech objects into a study of fundamental science concepts.

Live demonstrations, in-class group explorations of technology applications, and daily work with the Internet are essential elements of SCEN103.

link

slide14

A key feature of the writing-intensive work for this colloquium was the student’s setup and development of a personal website.

Working in small groups, students also created websites devoted to science and technology topics.

This year’s colloquium was designed as a pilot Pathways Course during the discussion of General Education Reform at UD.

Much of the learning in Spring 2000 SCEN103 was done with problem-based learning.

link

slide15

Broad Course Objectives:

Analyze simple electrical circuits to assess their function and effectiveness.

State and describe fundamental scientific principles underlying modern electronic devices.

Explain the basic operation of electrical circuits, simple semiconductor devices, and integrated circuits.

Identify the contributions of science and technology to everyday life.

link

slide16

Communicate technical ideas orally and in writing.

Evaluate the information content of Internet resources.

Use graphical and other multimedia elements effectively in a webpage.

Create an informative and organized website devoted to presenting a topic of technical interest from various perspectives.

Access timely, relevant, and authoritative information for problem solving.

Construct technical information into a logical framework for decision making.

Establish a frame of mind where quantitative reasoning is embraced.

Work effectively in a group to solve complex problems.

link

slide17

Problem-Based Learning in SCEN103

SCEN103 relies heavily on PBL with students working collaboratively in groups to solve real-world problems.

Students learn to apply simple scientific concepts, find and evaluate scientific and technical information, and communicate ideas about science and technology to others.

Discussions led by the course instructor, plus supplementary lectures, help to give a context and conceptual framework to the problems.

link

slide18

Why PBL in SCEN103?

The rate of generation of new information in the scientific and technical sectors is truly staggering.

Information becomes outdated rapidly and is updated constantly; much of what will be needed to know in the workplace following graduation has not been generated yet!

Thus identifying when new information is needed, where to find it, how to analyze it, and how to communicate it effectively are essential skills to learn in college.

An important result of PBL is that while problems are used to identify what to learn, the process of learning "how to learn" is also developed.

This method of instruction has been chosen to help develop skills important for success both in the students’ undergraduate education and in their professional life following graduation.

link

slide19

What is effective learning in SCEN103?

Effective learning is much more than memorizing information to answer questions on examinations.

Learning is a process that culminates in the ability:

to ask the right questions and frame good problems,

to acquire information and evaluate sources of information,

to critically investigate and solve problems,

to make choices among many alternatives,

to explain concepts to others (both orally and in writing), and

to generalize to new situations.

link

Problem-Based Learning helps develop these abilities!

a pbl approach to simple electrical circuits
A PBL Approach toSimple Electrical Circuits

Incorporating PBL problems,

Other collaborative exercises, and

Hands-on laboratory exercises.

slide21

PBL #1

Crossed Circuits

Two roommates argue about perceived use of electrical energy. Who should pay more towards the utility bill?

Energy = power x time

link

slide22

"How long does it take you to dry your hair?“ came Chris\'s scream from the kitchen. "I\'m trying to concentrate on my physics homework!"

"Do you want the answer as a fraction of a year?“ came Pat\'s retort from the bathroom. "Then you can have fun looking up the conversion to minutes in the back of your textbook!"

"You\'ve been at it for at least 20 minutes. You know, you should have to pay extra toward the electric bill. I bet you spend an hour a day drying your hair. I think $5 extra each month would be about right."

"You\'ve gotta be kidding me. With you and your night light burning all night long, I bet you use much more electricity than me! What are you afraid of anyway?"

"Yeah, but sometimes you fall asleep with your TV blaring. I bet that uses much more than my little night light."

"Oh, please! That only happens once a month. Your Winnie-the-Pooh light is on every night! Besides, how about your incessant showering. You take at least twice as long in the shower as I do. That must cost much more than running my hair dryer. What do you do in there anyway?"

Which roommate should pay a utility premium, Pat or Chris? How much extra?

slide23

Lab #1

Hairdryers: How much power?

Students bring in their hairdryers and test all settings. A relationship is discovered among the three circuit quantities while checking the manufacturers’ claims.

Power = current x voltage

link

slide24

PBL #2

A San Francisco Treat

Electrical wiring plans are formulated for a building conversion using floorplans from a “This Old House” project.

Parallel circuits

Household wiring

Power ratings of appliances

link

slide25

Exercise #1

Electrical Energy Use in the World?

Student groups use the CIA’s online World Fact Book to accumulate regional electrical energy use and investigate sources of discrepancies.

link

Globalization for Pathways Course objective

slide26

PBL #3

More Power!

Mark and Tim Allen rewire a toaster for more power by using hairdryer parts.

Resistance and Ohm’s law

link

slide27

Lab #2

Resistivity and Play-Doh

Students roll out cylinders of various diameters and find a relationship among resistance and geometric factors.

Resistance of a cylinder (wire)

link

slide28

PBL #4

Spring Break Adventure

Students investigate the circuit concepts behind the operation of two familiar battery testers.

Synthesis of cylinder resistance,

Ohm’s law, and

Electrical power

link

slide29

Lab #3

Batteries and Bulbs

Students work from the simplest possible circuit to the challenging circuit on the left and its companion on the right.

Series and parallel combinations

link

slide30

Exercise #3

Penetration rates of major consumer products in U.S. households

Historical aspects of electrical use

link

slide31

PBL #5

Lights Out!

Students attempt to design a flashlight from a 6V lantern bulb and two AAA cells that will last for five hours.

Batteries and internal resistance

Energy capacity

Circuit design

link

characteristics of good pbl problems
Characteristics ofGood PBL Problems

Relate to real-world, motivate students

Require decision-making or judgements

Multi-page, multi-stage

Designed for group-solving

Initial questions open-ended, encourages discussion

Incorporates course content objectives

Challenges to higher-order thinking

but where are the problems
But…where are the problems?

Typical end-of-chapter problems can besolved by rote memorization, pattern-match, and plug-and-chug techniques

Good problems should require students to make assumptions and estimates, develop models, and work through the model.

A source of problems outside the commercial texts needs to be developed.

“The problem with problems,” E. Mazur, Optics and Photonic News 7, 59 (1996)

pbl clearinghouse
PBL Clearinghouse

An online database of PBL articles and problems.

All material is peer-reviewed by PBL practitioners for content and pedagogy.

All problems are supported by learning objectives and resources, teaching and assessment notes.

Holdings are searchable by author, discipline, keywords, or full text.

Fully electronic submission, review, and publication cycle.

Controlled access by free user subscription, students excluded.

pbl clearinghouse http www udel edu pblc
PBL Clearinghousehttp://www.udel.edu/pblc/

PBL at the University of Delawarehttp://www.udel.edu/pbl/

Institute for Transforming

Undergraduate Educationhttp://www.udel.edu/itue/

This presentationhttp://www.udel.edu/pbl/ioste

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