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Chapter 4. Nutritive Aspects of Food Constituents. FOOD SUPPLIES:. Energy for all functions Building blocks for growth & maintenance. A Food Scientist Must Consider:. What nutrients do foods contain and what do we need?

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chapter 4

Chapter 4

Nutritive Aspects of Food Constituents

food supplies
FOOD SUPPLIES:
  • Energy for all functions
  • Building blocks for growth & maintenance
a food scientist must consider
A Food ScientistMust Consider:
  • What nutrients do foods contain and what do we need?
  • What is the stability of these nutrients and how does food processing affect stability?
food as fuel
Food as Fuel

The major sources of energy are:

  • Carbohydrates
  • Fats
  • Proteins
calorie
CALORIE
  • Amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by 1oC

KILOCALORIE

  • Unit used to express the energy value of foods
  • Equal to 1000 Calories
energy value to humans
Carbohydrates

Fats

Proteins

4 kcal/g

9 kcal/g

4 kcal/g

ENERGY VALUETO HUMANS:
energy costs
ENERGY COSTS
  • Cheapest - Carbohydrates
  • Intermediate - Fats
  • Most Expensive - Proteins
carbohydrates
CARBOHYDRATES
  • Provide energy
  • Spare proteins
  • Help burn fats
  • Provide fiber
proteins
PROTEINS
  • Provide essential amino acids
  • Can be used as energy
  • A complete protein contains all essential amino acids
  • Red meat, poultry, fish, milk & eggs are complete proteins
  • Vegetable sources are usually not complete
slide10
FATS
  • Supply energy
  • Supply polyunsaturated fatty acids
  • One essential fatty acid = linoleic acid
  • Supply vitamins A,D,E & K
  • Insulate body from rapid temperature change
slide11

Energy

Carbohydrates

Fats

Glucose

Fats

Proteins

Proteins

Stored or

Utilized

as

Consumed

as

vitamin a
VITAMIN A
  • Naturally occurs only in animals
  • Plants contain the precursor,

B-carotene

  • Deficiency leads to blindness, abnormal bones, and membrane diseases of the nose, throat & eyes
  • Sources: liver, fish oils, dairy foods w/ fat, carrots, squash, sweet potatoes, spinach
vitamin d
VITAMIN D
  • Formed in skin by conversion of cholesterol and other sterols by UV radiation
  • Increases absorption of Ca & P in intestine
  • Deficiency results in bone defects (rickets)
  • Most foods are low in Vitamin D
  • Milk is fortified
vitamin e
VITAMIN E
  • Essential, but specific role unknown
  • May serve primarily as an antioxidant
  • Aids in Fe absorption
  • Stabilizes biological membranes
  • Sources: vegetable oils
  • Deficiencies are rare
vitamin k
VITAMIN K
  • Essential for blood clotting
  • Sources: leafy vegetables
  • Bacteria in intestine synthesize K
vitamin c
VITAMIN C
  • AKA Ascorbic Acid
  • deficiency causes fragile capillary walls, gum bleeding, loose teeth, bone joint disease
  • Easily destroyed by high temperatures
  • Sources: citrus fruit, tomatoes, green vegetables, potatoes due to high consumption rate
vitamin b complex group
VITAMIN B Complex Group
  • Thiamin (B1)
  • Riboflavin (B2)
  • Niacin (Nicotinic Acid)
  • B6
  • Pantothenic Acid
  • B12
  • Folacin
  • Biotin
  • Choline
thiamin b 1
Thiamin (B1)
  • First of B vitamins to be discovered
  • Causes the disease known as “beriberi”
  • Necessary to utilize carbohydrates for energy
  • Sources: wheat germ, whole cereals w/ bran, liver, pork, egg yolk
  • Stable to heat in acid foods, but not in alkaline foods
riboflavin b 2
RIBOFLAVIN (B2)
  • Is the yellowish pigment in skim milk
  • Essential for oxidative cell processes
  • Deficiency results in skin disorders, cracking
  • Resistant to heat, but sensitive to light
  • Paper cartons are better for milk than clear plastic or glass
niacin
NIACIN
  • Deficiency causes skin and mucous membrane disorders
  • Necessary for the respiration and oxidation of glucose
  • Sources: meat, fish, poultry, peanuts, legumes, whole grain cereals
  • Stable to heat, light and oxidation, but will leach from foods during processing
vitamin b 6
VITAMIN B6
  • AKA pyridoxine
  • Required for normal metabolism
  • Deficiency symptoms not well defined
  • Source: meat, liver, green vegetables, whole grain cereals
pantothenic acid
PANTOTHENIC ACID
  • Deficiency symptoms not well defined
  • Available from a wide source of foods
vitamin b 12
VITAMIN B12
  • Required for RNA, DNA, fat and carbohydrate metabolism
  • Helps prevent anemias
  • Contains cobalt in its structure
  • Sources: liver, meats, seafoods
  • Not present in vegetables
folacin
FOLACIN
  • Helps prevent anemias
  • Involved in synthesis of nucleic acids
  • Sources: animal and plant tissues
biotin
BIOTIN
  • Active in metabolism of fatty acids and amino acids
  • Seldom in short supply
  • Synthesized by intestinal microbes
choline
CHOLINE
  • Component of cell membranes
  • Present in brain tissue
  • Involved in nerve impulse transmission
  • Seldom in short supply
  • Synthesized by intestinal microbes
minerals29
Ca

P

Mg

Fe

Cu

Co

Zn

Na

Cl

K

I

Fl

MINERALS

Plus Others

fiber
FIBER
  • Maintains intestinal health
  • Lowers plasma cholesterol
  • Reduces incidence of colon cancer
  • Lowers insulin requirements of diabetics
  • Sources: cereal grains, fruits, vegetables
water
WATER
  • 60% of human body is water
  • Is the primary solvent of biological systems
  • Removes wastes from body
  • Cools the body through evaporation
  • We drink 400 liters per year
  • Obtain 400 liters per year from food items
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