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ccTLD Management, ICANN, and the Public Interest July 26, 2001. ccTLD Timeline. February 1985 – .us (first ccTLD) created at USC March 1994 – RFC 1591 describes ccTLD delegation policies October 1998 – Death of Jon Postel December 1998 – ICANN assumes the IANA function

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ccTLD Management,

ICANN,

and the Public Interest

July 26, 2001


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ccTLD Timeline

  • February 1985 – .us (first ccTLD) created at USC

  • March 1994 – RFC 1591 describes ccTLD delegation policies

  • October 1998 – Death of Jon Postel

  • December 1998 – ICANN assumes the IANA function

  • March 1999 – ICANN/IANA publishes ICP-1

  • May 1999 – ICANN formally recognizes ccTLD constituency

  • February 2000 – GAC publishes ccTLD Principles

  • May 2000 – ICANN requests voluntary contributions from ccTLD managers; collects 48% of invoiced total


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ICANN

IANA function

Root zone file

(ISO-3166)

.gov

.com

.name

.mil

.eg

.nz

.net

.coop

.edu

.ng

.cn

.org

.museum

.biz

.aero

.ru

.us

.info

.pro

.int

.cg

.uy


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The root server system

ICANN

IANA

Root zone file

B

H

C

I

A

D

J

E

K

F

L

G

M



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ICP-1

Internet Domain Name System Structure and Delegation

(ccTLD Administration and Delegation)

  • Principles for Delegation:

  • Desires of the government “taken very seriously”

  • “Significantly interested parties in the domain should agree that the proposed TLD manager is the appropriate party.”

  • Operational capability

  • Administrative/technical contact; administrative must reside in the country at issue

  • Fair treatment to all groups in the domain, under publicly-posted policies

  • Duty to serve the community as a trustee; concerns about “rights” and domain “ownership” inappropriate

<http://www.icann.org/icp/icp-1.htm>


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GAC Principles for ccTLD Delegation/Administration

  • ICANN should redelegate ccTLD management immediately, where terms exist between the TLD manager and government, upon breach of those terms

  • ICANN should redelegate ccTLD management immediately, where manager-government communication does not exist, upon a government showing and request

  • All future ccTLD re/delegations should occur only in cooperation with relevant governments

  • Delegees should not be subject to discriminatory practices by ICANN or by governments

<http://www.icann.org/committees/gac/gac-cctldprinciples-23feb00.htm>


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CDT Policy Principles for ccTLD Administration

  • Obligation to the needs of users, current and future

  • Open, transparent decision-making

  • Mechanisms for public outreach, effective representation, and accountability to user interests

  • Support public service objectives—e.g., encourage Internet access, accessibility, diversity, usability, education, affordability, etc.

  • Promote human rights, civil liberties, and democratic potential of the Internet

  • Non-discriminative, publicly posted policies


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Present Models of ccTLD Management

  • “.com competitor” -- .tv, .ws, .cd -- Operated for global use by an offshore vendor, through contract with national governments

  • Private association -- .jp, .uk, .de -- Operated for national use by an association of technical stakeholders

  • Non-profit administrator -- .ca, .nz -- Operated for national use by a non-profit association of individual members

  • Direct government operation -- .ng, .ar, .kh -- Operated by a government agency/ministry

  • Academic/public service operation -- .us, .uy, .be -- Operated by a university, or by university volunteers

  • Private contractor -- .gh, .mn, .ae -- Run on a national basis as a for-profit business


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CDT and the .us redelegation

US Government

Registry

operator

Non-profit

policy corp.

.us

ICANN

Root zone file

IANA


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