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Biochemistry. 阮雪芬 Sep 9, 2002 NTUT. Chapter 1. Introduction. History What is biochemistry Biochemistry and life Biochemical Energy Transfer of Information from DNA to Protein. History. Life: 150 years ago Biochemistry: 60 years ago. What is Biochemistry. ?. Definition.

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Biochemistry

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Biochemistry l.jpg

Biochemistry

阮雪芬

Sep 9, 2002

NTUT


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Chapter 1. Introduction

  • History

  • What is biochemistry

  • Biochemistry and life

  • Biochemical Energy

  • Transfer of Information from DNA to Protein


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History

  • Life: 150 years ago

  • Biochemistry: 60 years ago


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What is Biochemistry

?


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Definition

  • The science that is concerned with the structures, interactions, and transformations of biological molecules

  • The chemistry of life


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Biochemistry can be subdivided three principal areas

  • Structural chemistry

  • Metabolism

  • The chemistry of processes and substances that store and transmit biological information (molecular genetics)


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Biochemistry and Life

  • The cell is the fundamental unit of life

  • Prokaryotes and eukaryotes

  • Eukaryotic cells

    • animal cells

    • plant cells (chloroplasts and cell walls)


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Biochemistry and Life

  • Cells are composed of:

    • Small molecules

    • Macromolecules

    • organelles


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Biochemistry and Life

The Approximate Chemical Composition of Bacterial Cell


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Biochemistry and Life

  • Expect for water, most of the molecules found in the cell are macromolecules, can be classified into four different categories:

    • Lipids

    • Carbohydrates

    • Proteins

    • Nucleic acids


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Biochemistry and Life

  • Lipids are primarily hydrocarbon structures

  • Carbohydrates, like lipids, contain a carbon backbone, but they also contain many polar hydroxyl (-OH) groups and therefore very soluble in water.

  • Proteins are the most complex macromolecules in the cell. They are composed of linear polymers called polypeptides, which contain amino acids connected by peptide bonds.


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Lipid Structure


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Carbohydrates Structure


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Biochemistry and Life

  • Each amino acid contains a central carbon atom attached to four substituents

    • A carboxyl group

    • An amino group

    • A hydrogen atom

    • An R group

  • Nucleic acids are the large macromolecules in the cells. They are very long linear polymers, called polynucleotides, composed of nucleotides.


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Amino Acids Structures


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Biochemistry and Life

  • A nucleotide contains :

    • A five-carbon sugar molecules

    • One or more phosphate groups

    • A nitrogenous base

  • DNA: A, T, G, C

  • RNA: A, U, G,C


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DNA Contain Four Bases

RNA


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Covalent Structure of DNA


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Watson-Crick base pairs


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Watson-Crick base pairs


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The Double Helix


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Biochemical Energy

  • All cellular functions re quire energy.

  • The most-important chemical form of energy in most cells is ATP, adenosine 5’-triphosphate.

  • ATP ADP + Pi

  • Most ATP synthesis occurs in chloroplasts and mitochondria


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ADT and ATP Structures


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Energy Transfer


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Energy Transfer


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Transfer of Information from DNA to Protein

DNA

RNA

Protein


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Transfer of Information from DNA to Protein


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