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Unemployment in Slovakia. http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/flags/lo-flag.html. Geographic and Ethnic Implications Margot Gustafson gustafmk@uwec.edu Geography 308 (Russia and Eastern Europe) Professor Zoltan Grossman University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire Spring 2005 .

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Unemployment in slovakia l.jpg

Unemployment in Slovakia

http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/flags/lo-flag.html

Geographic and Ethnic Implications

Margot Gustafson

gustafmk@uwec.edu

Geography 308 (Russia and Eastern Europe) Professor Zoltan Grossman University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire Spring 2005


Slide2 l.jpg

http://www.un.org/Depts/Cartographic/map/profile/slovakia.pdf


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Background Information

  • Once under control of Magyar Empire

  • Slovakia became independent from Czechoslovakia in 1993, after the “Velvet Divorce”

  • Since the separation, the less developed Slovakia’s main problem has been its high unemployment rate, at 15.2% nationally

  • http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/canadaeuropa/site/images/banska_bystrica_tatras_park.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/canadaeuropa/country_slo-en.asp&h=250&w=265&sz=12&tbnid=b1DWoQu4PckJ:&tbnh=101&tbnw=107&start=12&prev=/images%3Fq%3DSlovakia%2B%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26sa%3DG


National unemployment l.jpg

Loss of jobs- Post Communist Era

Slovakia more reliant on military and industry

Many factories closed

Employers don’t follow labor laws

Better jobs abroad

Unemployment benefits nearly match that of minimum wage

Why work?

National Unemployment

www.sauerdanfross.com

www.radio510.org/slovakia


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  • Variations of unemployment by ethnicity and geographic location

    • 12% of unemployed are ethnic Hungarians

    • High number of unemployed in agriculturally based regions, which do not have the developed industrial sector


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“The majority of unemployed people can be found in peripheral and economically weak regions with an undeveloped infrastructure, unqualified labour force as well as a negative demographic development. These are the regions of south and south-east Slovakia. This situation also reflects the situation of bankrupted agricultural companies. Ex- employees of these companies only have a minimal education. After agricultural production collapsed in these areas they lost their jobs. On the other hand there are no alternative work possibilities for them that could saturate the labour quote.”-From “Unemployment in Slovakia”


Regions of slovakia l.jpg

Regions of Slovakia

Zilina

Presov

Trencin

Kosice

Banska Bystrica

Trnava

Bratislava

Nitra

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.fe.doe.gov/images/international/sk-div.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.fe.doe.gov/international/CentralEastern%2520Europe/slvkover.html&h=298&w=550&sz=7&tbnid=uBfWlmptp38J:&tbnh=70&tbnw=129&start=1&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dregions%2Bof%2BSlovakia%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D


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Banska Bystrica Region (Banskobystrický kraj)

Bratislava Region (Bratislavský kraj)

Kosice Region (Košický kraj)

Nitra Region (Nitriansky kraj)

Presov Region (Prešovský kraj)

Trencin Region (Trenčiansky kraj)

Trnava Region (Trnavský kraj)

Zilina Region (Žilinský kraj)

Hungarian/Slovak

Slovak/Hungarian

Slovak/Hungarian

Hungarian/Slovak

Slovak/Roma

Slovak/Misc. (Czech, German, etc)

Slovak/Misc. (Czech, German, Polish, etc)

Slovak/Hungarian

Regions of Slovakia

Ethnic Composition (majority/minority)

Region


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http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.fe.doe.gov/images/international/sk-div.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.fe.doe.gov/international/CentralEastern%2520Europe/slvkover.html&h=298&w=550&sz=7&tbnid=uBfWlmptp38J:&tbnh=70&tbnw=129&start=1&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dregions%2Bof%2BSlovakia%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D

Margot Gustafson 2005

Regions closer to the Czech Republic have lower unemployment because these regions were more industrialized prior to the breakup of Czechoslovakia. Regions closer to Hungary, Ukraine, and Poland have higher unemployment because they are further away from the industrialized west.


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Regional Divisions

  • Ethnic Hungarians claim the split of Slovakia into 8 regions in October of 1996 will keep them from having the majority in any region

  • Somewhat similar to the political gerrymandering which occurred in the southern United States to deny rights to African Americans


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Banksa Bystrica

  • Major employers are service related

    • Banking, education, and tourism

    • Some industrial employers

      • wood processing, a cement plant, construction, electronics

  • UNEMPLOYMENT AT 23.8%

    • Large population of ethnic Hungarians


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Banksa Bystrica

  • One of the least developed areas economically of Slovakia

  • Highest unemployment rate of young people

    • Suffering from “Brain drain”

  • Hope for the future- industry

    • Attract foreign investors, keep labor force in the region

  • Hope for the future- tourism

    • Thermal medicinal springs

    • Center of World Culture and National Heritage


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Bratislava

  • Home of the nation’s Capital- Bratislava

  • Most developed region in Slovakia

    • Faces hostility from other less developed regions

  • 6.9% unemployment rate

    • Lowest of all regions

  • Employment primarily in manufacturing

    • Foreign investors (Ex. Volkswagen Slovakia)

http://www.slowakei-net.de/global/image/foto_bau/Bratislava_Nationaltheater.jpg


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Bratislava

  • Low unemployment rate correlates to the location of Slovakian government facilities

    • Leads to ethnic tension because few ethnic Hungarians are involved in politics/government

    • Slovakian leaders state that since there are a few Hungarians involved in government, there is no active repression of the minority

  • Until 1997, 65% of all foreign investments went to the Bratislava region

    • Today 59.4% of foreign investments occur in this region

www.crwflags.com/ fotw/images/s/sk)0.gif

http://www.bratislava.info/hotels/hotel-marrols/img/hotel.jpg


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Kosice

  • Slovakia’s second largest city, has the second largest unemployment rate of 23%

    • Roma unemployment estimated at 90% in the Kosice region alone

  • Isolated from Slovakian Capital

    • No way to connect East with West

      • Little trading, movement of unemployed

  • Spent $53 million rebuilding city

    • Debt collectors after city government

http://www.spectacularslovakia.sk/ss2002/kosice_ascii.html


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Kosice & the Future

  • Connect East with West by building roads and trade routes

  • US Steel bought a struggling steel manufacturer which supported over 100,000 jobs

    • Maintained production levels

    • Looking into Eastern Slovakia as a place for future investments

http://www.region.sk/img/kosice.jpg

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~joybobsalt/040526%20SLOVAKIA%20KOSICE%20(28).jpg


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Nitra

http://www.globalgeografia.com/album/slovacchia/nitra.jpg

  • On the border of Hungary

  • Unemployment rate of 23.4%

  • Mochovce is the site of a nuclear power plant under construction

    • Once completed, it will provide most of energy for the entire country

http://www.city-hotel.sk/images/mapa-Nitra.gif


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Presov

  • Unemployment rate of 20.4%

  • Engineering, clothing, and electro-technical are the largest industries

  • “Pretty Woman Capital of the Country”

  • Mix of Slovaks, Roma, Rusyns, and Hungarians

http://www.slovakfolkcrafts.com/travels/presov%20arch.jpg

http://atlas-cs.logis.cz/objekty/PQ/presov.htm


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Presov

  • High rate of unemployment in the ethnic Hungarian population

  • Near total unemployment in the Roma population

    • Project Svinia, a Habitat for Humanity project

      • Create jobs, motivation

www.worldcityphotos.org/ Slovakia/SLK-Presov

www.worldcityphotos.org/ Slovakia/SLK-Presov


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Trencin

  • Unemployment at 9.2%, lower than national average

  • More industrialized, close on the border with Czech Republic

    • Better opportunities for foreign trade

  • Mountainous (Tatras), agriculture important

  • More affluent population

http://www.spectacularslovakia.sk/ss2002/trencin_ascii.html


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Trencin

  • Through further mining and natural resource development, economic improvement should occur

  • By improving road systems, the Trencin region will also improve its tourism and opportunities for foreign investments

http://www.viser.net/~draft/writer/mom/trencin.jpg

http://europa.eu.int/comm/enlargement/images/slovak_pict/tre02_trencin.jpg


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Trnava

http://www.makedonija.info/images/gallery/trnava.jpg

  • Unemployment at 13.2%

  • Consists mostly of lowlands

  • Mineral as well as timber resources

  • Home of several Universities

http://www.konfsanet.sav.sk/WEBSANET/A1_Zamok%20Smolenice/Okolie%20zamku/Pohladz%20veze%20Smolenice-Trnava.jpg


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Trnava

  • Economic instability in the agricultural based economy

  • Lack of roads and telecommunications systems

  • Hope for the future

    • Qualified workforce

    • Large portion of land suitable for agriculture

    • Highway to connect Trnava with Bratislava

http://www.tourist-channel.sk/trnava/trnava-erb-velky.gif


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Zilina

http://www.spectacularslovakia.sk/img/gallery/zilina.jpg

  • Unemployment at 17.2%

  • Third largest region of Slovakia

  • Mainly mountainous, rich in mineral resources

  • Rich in history; many buildings and other landmarks which are points of interest for tourists

  • Problems with pollution due to location

    • Mountains trap polluted air from industry and autos

http://www.travel-to-zilina.biz/fotky/zilina_pohlad.jpg


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Zilina

  • Possibilities exist for economic cooperation with Poland and Czech Republic

  • Opportunities to expand tourism could create jobs

  • Construction in progress to improve transport systems

http://www.ngw.nl/int/slo/z/images/zilina.jpg

http://www.zilina.sk/en/i/zakladne.jpg


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Slovakia’s future

  • NATO and EU entry (in 2004) brighten hopes for foreign investments

    • Slovakia seen as more stable now than in 1993

  • Rebuilding of infrastructure (roads, communication systems) will increase trade and production


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Slovakia’s Future

http://lesani.fotoweb.cz/fotky/20040614_fatra/146%20Mala%20Fatra%20National%20Park,%20Slovakia.JPG

  • Strong relationship building with European market

  • Development of tourism

  • Attraction of foreign investors

    • US Steel, Volkswagen, IBM, Johnson Controls, Fujitsu, Samsung, Coca-Cola, Whirlpool, Swedwood, Henkel, Siemens, Schule, Heineken, South Africa Breweries, Rajo, Andor, Kappa

  • Need to increase attractiveness of Slovakia to its younger generations to alleviate stress of “brain drain”


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Questions???


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References

American Hungarian Federation

http://www.americanhungarianfederation.org/news_benesdecrees.htm

Arnold, James. “Making Slovakia Work” BBC Online Edition, November 2002.

Economy in the Slovak Republic

http://www.sopk.sk/ba/an/1/2.html

Global Contract 2004- Slovak Republic

http://www.ohkbrno.cz/k-k2004/en/region/sk.php

National Democratic Institute- “Attitude of Slovak Women Towards Political Parties, Government, and Public Issue

http://www.ndi.org/worldwide/cee/slovakia/slovakia_focusgroups/slovakia_

present.pdf

Slovak Association for Business Assistance

http://www.skaba.sk/index.fcgi?lang=en&pageset_id=7000


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Region of Nitra

http://www.sopk.sk/ni/an/1/2.html

Slovak Association for Business Assistance

http://www.skaba.sk/index.fcgi?lang=en&pageset_id=7000

Slovakian Regional Crests

http://www.hamradio.sk/pictures/slovakia.jpg

Spectacular Slovakia

http://www.spectacularslovakia.sk/ss2002/kosice_ascii.html

Unemployment in Slovakia

http://www.slovakradio.sk/rsi/ang/business/txt/0107_unemployment.html

Unidea

http://www.unicreditfoundation.org/eng/progetto-uk.asp?id_progetto=38

World Health Organization- Regional Office for Europe

http://www.euro.who.int/healthy-cities/documentation/20010917_3


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