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Systems of the Body. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM FUNCTION: The nervous system controls & coordinates everything in the body. This includes all movement and all of the activities of the organs & organ systems. MAJOR PARTS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

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THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

FUNCTION:

The nervous system controls & coordinates everything in the body. This includes all movement and all of the activities of the organs & organ systems.


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MAJOR PARTS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

  • Brain: The controls center of the nervous system, and the whole body

  • Spinal cord: Carries messages to and from the brain.

  • Neurons (nerves) are the special cells that carry the messages through the body.


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Brain

Spinal Cord

Nerves


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The Circulatory System:

Function:

The circulatory system & respiratory system work together to supply cells with the oxygen and nutrients they need to stay alive.

The Main Parts:

1. The heart

  • Atria: 2 upper chambers, receive blood from the body

  • Ventricles: 2 lower chambers, pump blood out of heart

  • Valves: Regulate the flow of blood through the heart


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2. Blood vessels:

  • Arteries: Carry oxygenated blood to the heart

  • Veins: Carry deoxygenated blood to the heart

  • Capillaries: The smallest, bring nutrients & oxygen to the tissues & absorb carbon dioxide & other waste products from them

    3. Blood:

  • Red blood cells: Contain hemoglobin & carry oxygen

  • White blood cells: Infection fighters

  • Platelets: Clot blood

  • Plasma: The liquid part of blood


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The Flow of Blood Through the Body:

Heart  Arteries  Capillaries  Veins  back to heart

Diagram the Flow of Blood:

To body…

aorta

Vena cava

valve


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The Respiratory System

Function:

The basic function of the human respiratory system is the exchange of oxygen& carbon dioxidebetween the blood, air and tissues. In addition, air entering the respiratory system is warmed, moistened & cleanedbefore it enters the lungs.

Main Parts:

  • Nose (& mouth): air enters here

  • Pharynx: serves as a passageway for both AIR & food

  • Epiglottiscovers the entrance to the trachea when you swallow (so food does not go into lungs


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Define:

1. Gas exchange: Oxygen diffuses into the blood & carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood out into the lung

  • Breathing: The taking in of oxygen and release of carbon dioxide waste into the air

  • Diaphragm: Muscle that controls breathing by moving up & down

    Flow of air through the body:

    Nose Trachea  Bronchi  Bronchioles

     Alveoli of the lungs


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  • Larynx: contains two elastic folds of tissue called vocal cords

  • Trachea: also known as the windpipe

  • Bronchi: two large passageways in the chest cavity, each bronchus leads into one the lungs

  • Alveoliof lungs:tiny air sacs (like grapes) where gas is exchanged


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Nose

Mouth


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Label the Diagram of the Respiratory System:

A Nose J Diaphragm

I Bronchioles C Pharynx

F Trachea H Bronchus

E Larynx D Epiglottis

B Mouth G Lungs


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The Reproductive Systems:

  • The main function of the reproductive systems is to make egg and sperm cells which will combine to make a zygote (offspring)

    Male Reproduction

  • The function of the male reproductive system is to produce and deliver sperm.

    • Sperm are made in the testes through the process of meiosis.

    • In human males, sperm are haploid & have 23 chromosomes


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  • testes: 2 walnut sized organs that make sperm

  • scrotum: 2 pouches that each contain one testis outside the body.

  • vas deferens – tube that sperm travel through when they are released from each testis.

  • urethra – tube that connects the 2 vas deferens and travels through the penis.

    • Both sperm & urine travel through the urethra

    • During ejaculation (sperm being released from the penis) sperm mix with a seminal fluid-

      together sperm and fluid make up semen.


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Urinary bladder

Vas deferens

Pubic bone

Seminal vesicle

Urethra

Rectum

Penis

Prostate gland

Epididymis

Bulbourethral gland

Testis

Scrotum


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THREE FUNCTIONS OF THE

FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

  • To produce eggs

  • To receive sperm

  • Provide an environment that a baby can develop in


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How are eggs produced & released in females?

  • ovaries: 2 ovaries are where eggs are made through meiosis. 1 egg is released each month called ovulation

  • fallopian tube: tube the egg travels through one it is released from the ovary. (also called oviduct) there are 2 fallopian tubes.

  • uterus: fist sized organ where an embryo grows.

  • vagina: passageway to the outside of the body

    - baby is born through this passageway and

    sperm are deposited here


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  • cervix: small opening at the bottom of the uterus which leads into the vagina. Opens when a baby is born. Otherwise small so menstrual blood can exit the body.

  • If a successful pregnancy is to occur, the egg must be fertilized by the sperm in the fallopian tube/oviduct.

  • The fertilized egg is called a zygote and must then implant into the uterus, where it will develop for 9 month

  • If fertilization hasn’t occurred, the egg then travels into the uterus, through the cervix and into the vagina and out the body.



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THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM FUNCTIONS:

  • Muscle allow organs & bones of the body to move.

  • The fibers that make up muscle, “contract”. The contraction makes the whole muscle shorter which allows them to move organs and bones.


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3 TYPES OF MUSCLE

1. Skeletal: Attaches to bone & allows for movement

2. Smooth: Found in the walls of the stomach, intestines

& blood vessels. Helps materials move through these

structures

3. Cardiac: Makes the heart

beat to send blood to the

body.


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HOW DO MUSCLES MOVE BONES?

  • Muscles contract and cause bones to move.

  • Tendon: Attaches a muscle to a bone

  • Muscles work in pairs to cause movement:

    Ex: Bicep contracts & tricep relaxes  arm bends

    Bicep relaxes & tricep contracts  arm straightens


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  • Functions of the skeletal System

    - supports the body

    - protects the organs

    - allows the body to move

    - makes blood cells

  • Parts of the skeletal system

    - bones

    - ligaments

    - tendons

    - cartilage


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  • There are 206 bones in the human body.

  • Bones are living tissue that grow and need blood.

  • Bones have blood vessels inside of them and are made of cells


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Types of Bone Tissue:

1. Compact: Layer of hard bone that covers all bone

2. Spongy: Surrounded by the compact bone, it has many holes & spaces in it. Makes bones lighter.

3. Bone marrow: Soft tissue inside of bones makes blood cells


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WHAT ARE JOINTS?

A joint is where 2 or more bones meet & allow for movement

  • Ball & socket: Shoulder & hip

  • Hinge joint: Elbow

  • Pivot joint: Neck


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Joints are held together by a tough band of tissue called ligament

Tough & flexible cartilage might cover the ends of a bone to allow for smooth movement between bones


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The Digestive System:

Function:

The digestive system converts food into simpler molecules that can be used by the cells of the body.

The Parts of the Digestive System:

1. Key organs

  • Mouth– food is chewed & mashed into paste and salivary glandssecrete saliva which contains enzymes


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  • Esophagus Muscular tube that contracts, pushing food into the stomach

  • StomachMuscular sac that churns, continuing the breakdown of food mechanically & chemically with enzymes

  • Small Intestinelong tube where most of the nutrient molecules are absorbed into cells

  • Large Intestine Removes water from

    undigested food material. Also called

    the colon


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  • Accessory Organs

    • PancreasSecretes hormones to control blood sugar (insulin) and enzymes to digest starch, fat, protein.

    • Liver Produces bile which dissolves fat

    • Gall bladderStores bile before entering small intestine


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Define:

  • Mechanical digestion: Physical breakdown of food into smaller pieces by the teeth & churning stomach

  • Chemical digestion:Enzymes chemically break food into smaller pieces in the mouth, stomach & small intestine

  • Villi: Finger-like projections in the small intestine which increase the surface area so more nutrients can be absorbed

Wall of small

intestine



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The Excretory System:

Function:

The basic function of the human excretory system is the removal of waste from the cells and body. The skin excretes excess water and salts in the form of sweat. The lungs excrete carbon dioxide. The kidneys play a major role in excretion and remove waste products from the blood, maintain blood pH and regulate the water content of the blood and, therefore homeostasis.


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THE MAIN PARTS:

  • Kidneys = located on either side of the backbone and partially protected by the ribcage

  • Blood enters the kidney and is cleaned and filtered.

  • Urea (a toxic substance), excess salts, and water are removed from the blood and form urine.

  • Once filtered, clean blood leaves the kidney and returns to circulation.


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  • Nephrons = the functional, blood-filtering units of the kidney

  • Ureters= 2 tubes, one leaving each kidney, carry urine to the urinary bladder

  • Bladder=a saclike organ where urine is stored before being excreted

  • Urethra= a tube that carries urine form the bladder & releases it from the body


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DEFINE:

Urea = Nitrogen containing waste made by the body

Dialysis = Blood is removed from the body, cleaned by a machine & then returned to the body

UREA REMOVAL FROM THE BODY:

Kidneys UreterBladderUrethra released from body


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A DIAGRAM OF THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM:

D urethra A kidney

B ureter C urinary bladder

Excretory System

kidney

nephron


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