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Security, Access and Control of an Industrial Wireless Network Mike Malone Microwave Data Systems. Agenda. Industry Trends Network Security Analysis Security and Wireless Serial Networks Wireless LAN Risk Management Summary. Industry/Market Trends.

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Security, Access and Control

of an Industrial Wireless Network

Mike Malone

Microwave Data Systems


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Agenda

  • Industry Trends

  • Network Security Analysis

  • Security and Wireless Serial Networks

  • Wireless LAN Risk Management

  • Summary


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Industry/Market Trends

  • Security needs are growing on a daily basis - Dispersed networks and multiply access points can leave a network vulnerable to hackers and terrorists

Corporate WAN

VSAT

Leased line

Corporate

Host

Centralized

database

holds corporate

information


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Industry/Market Trends

  • Heightened awareness and sensitivity has led to increased security efforts in all aspects of our lives

  • Security of critical infrastructure/assets is one of our nation’s most important objectives.


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Network Security Analysis

  • Wired networks are also vulnerable

    • Telephone, fiber optic, coaxial cable have higher risk for breakage or damage due to storms, motor vehicle accidents, construction work, sabotage, and tapping

    • Repairs may take days or weeks during a widespread crisis

    • Wireless has potentially less failure points

  • Network Access Priority

    • During heavy periods of telephone use, such as an emergency situation, voice traffic is the priority, not data

    • Private networks have a more predictable traffic composition


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Network Security Analysis

  • Two types of networks

    • Multiple service IP networks

    • Dedicated service serial networks

  • Several types of risks

    • Free access to internet

    • Databases: company records, password files, account numbers, network diagrams, manuals, location of instruments, etc.

    • Applications: controlling behavior of remote devices and resources


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SCADA Polling Systems

  • Single Service Oriented

    • A host sends commands or requests, and expects an action/report from the RTU/PLC

  • Gaining access to a host through a serial channel nearly impossible

    • No access to console prompt and/or host operating system commands


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SCADA Polling Systems

  • Proprietary protocols provide protection

    • Information is stored in custom specific registers are programmed into the devices

    • Passwords are used at the application layer

    • Hacker must “replace” the host computer to control RTU/PLC and/or have a copy of the host application as configured for the particular host

    • Know and understand the exact radio and RTU/PLC models

    • Know the protocol or have knowledge of specific site logic configuration

    • Be close enough to override the Master signal


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Network Security Analysis

  • Current security issues with 802.11b wireless LAN solutions

    • Available protection not enabled by users

    • Off the shelf solutions provide relatively easy access to physical layer

    • WEP weaknesses published on Internet

    • Free software available to help break WEP encryption


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Risk Management

  • Nothing is perfect

  • Network security is about layering

  • You can not completely eliminate risk, but you can reduce it to a manageable level


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Risks and Mitigation

  • Eavesdropping

    • RC4 128 bit encryption

  • Key cracking

    • Dynamic key rotation

  • War driving and “sniffing”

    • No promiscuous mode of operation

    • Proprietary physical layer

    • Not readily available to commodity market


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Risks and Mitigation

  • Unauthorized Network Access

  • Foreign remote radios

    • Authorized access list of remotes at Access

  • Rogue Access Points

    • Authorized Access Point list at every remote


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Risks and Mitigation

  • Denial of Service attacks

  • Network overload

    • Bandwidth limiting

    • Traffic Prioritization (QoS)

      • Per remote radio

      • Per interface

  • Radio Frequency jamming

    • Frequency Hopping more resilient than Direct Sequence


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Risks and Mitigation

  • Denial of Service attacks

  • Network Availability

  • Remote configuration

    • All Logins with password protection

    • Directory attacks

    • Limited login retries with temporary lockdown

    • HTTP with MD5 protection

    • Remote access lockdown

      • HTTP (web browser)

      • Telnet

    • SNMP v3 (encryption)


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Risks and Mitigation

  • Denial of Service

  • Network availability

    • Industrial rated devices: Class 1 Div 2

    • Industrial MTBF (35 years)

    • Redundancy (device and system level)


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Risks and Mitigation

  • Intrusion Detection

    • Early warning notification

      • SNMP alarms

        • Login attempts

        • Successful Login/logout

        • Configuration changes executed

        • Unauthorized remote MAC detected

        • Unauthorized AP MAC detected

      • Network Wide Device Polling


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Security Beyond Wireless

  • Secure communications end-to-end

  • Firewalls and Virtual Private Networks are essential to maintaining a secure network

  • Security policies include physical access

  • Security is not something you buy, it’s something you practice 24x7


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Summary

  • Wireless communications provides security benefits that a wired environment cannot, but issues still exist

  • Internal precautions--firewalls and Virtual Private Networks--will help prevent attacks on wireless and wired networks

  • Industrial wireless networks can be secure despite bad press of commercial products


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