Political Parties. And Election Systems. Political Parties & Democracy. In democracies, citizens organize their political activity through political parties and the election process.
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
And Election Systems
According to the text, the purpose is “to put forward proposed leaders whom they support for official positions in government.”
Also, parties want to have an impact on public policy. They don’t simply want to win office; they want to win office so that they can affect what decisions are made.
Functions may differ. They:
* mobilize support for the regime.
* recruit and train potential leaders.
* oversee the bureaucracy.
* spy on population (in totalitarian systems)
Not a link between the bottom and top, but a means of social control by the top over the bottom.
Government & party closely linked. No opposition parties permitted.
Kim Il Sung
Additional parties not outlawed but have serious difficulty winning because of electoral system.
Tend to be umbrella parties; tend to be stable.
Disadvantage: Voters limited to two choices.
By far the most common; see examples in text.
In Multi-party states, it’s difficult for any one party to win a majority. Coalitions with similar parties become necessary. But coalition partners may resign over particular government policies, so this system is less stable.
Example of government instability:
Italy, from 1945 to 1995, had 44 different coalition governments.
wins the most with
28 seats in the
Knesset. The new
Prime Minister Olmert
must form a coalition government.
Winning party: Kadima: 28 seats, centristProbable partners:2. Labour: 20 seats, centre-leftPossible partners:3. Shas: 13 seats, ultra-orthodox4. Pensioners: 7 seats, single-issue5. Torah Judaism: 6 seats, ultra-orthodox6. Meretz: 4 seats, left-wingUnlikely partners:7. Israel Beitenu: 12 seats, Russian emigres, far-right8. Likud: 11 seats, right-wing9. Arab parties: 10 seats10. National Union/Religious: 9 seats, far-right, settlers
Single Member Plurality (SMP)
The candidate who wins a plurality of the vote prevails; a majority is not needed. Only one seat per district. No way for voters to designate their 2nd choice. Tends to produce a two-party system unless a small party’s voters are concentrated in a district.
Scores of minor parties, among them:
Chance of winning statewide or national office low. Why?
Presidential candidates must win 270 electors (out of 538) to win office.
Example: Ross Perot & Reform Party in 1992 won 19% of the popular vote but not one elector.
Each district has multiple seats. Each political party wins the same proportion of seats as the vote it wins.
Favors the development of multiple political parties.
Assume the following vote distribution in
a district with 10 parliamentary seats:
Quisenberry Party wins 50%
Wiggins Party wins 30%
Baker Party wins 20%
How many seats does each party win?
Wiggins Party wins 50%
Quisenberry Party wins 30%
Baker Party wins 20%
Wigginistas gain 5 seats
Quisenberries win 3 seats
Bakerites gain 2 seats