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Old Testament 6. Tobit. Written about 180-200BC Unknown location Hebrew romance Praises the virtuous Jew God’s mercy and benevolence Traditional forms of piety- prayer, fasting and almsgiving, burial of the dead Family life. Tobit. Tobit- devout and wealthy

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Old Testament 6

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Old testament 6 l.jpg

Old Testament 6


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Tobit

  • Written about 180-200BC

  • Unknown location

  • Hebrew romance

  • Praises the virtuous Jew

  • God’s mercy and benevolence

  • Traditional forms of piety- prayer, fasting and almsgiving, burial of the dead

  • Family life


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Tobit

  • Tobit- devout and wealthy

  • Lives among captives deported to Ninevah

  • Suffers reversal of fortune and is blinded by bird doo.

  • Begs the lord to let him die

  • Remembers money saved- sends son Tobiah to get it- Chapter 4- instructions


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Tobit

  • Sarah- prays for death since she has lost 7 husbands- each killed on wedding night by demon

  • God sends Raphael archangel to help them both

  • Raphael goes to Media with Tobiah, attacked by large fish

  • Take gall, heart and liver- discard entrails


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Tobit

  • Tobiah eats fish, keeps rest

  • Raphael tells him to marry Sarah

  • Tobiah scared

  • Use fish liver and heart to ward off evil spirit and pray

  • Get married and pray 8:5-7

  • Use gall to cure blindness

  • God took care of the virtuous


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Tobit


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Judith

  • Written around 100 BC-Judith- a generic name

  • Holofernes- sent by Nebuchadnezzar to destroy nations who wouldn’t help him

  • Judith a widow- 8:7-8

  • Goes to enemy camp- pretends to betray her people

  • Holofernes wants her- allows her to pray to God for three nights

  • 4th night- drunk- she beheads him

  • Judith is small defenseless nation saved by God and Heroic Jewish woman

  • For us, Mary like Judith- 15:9


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Judith beheading Holofernes-Caravaggio


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Esther

  • 4th century BC

  • Haman- advisor to Persian King Xerxes

  • Hates all Jews- wants to kill them all in a day

  • Hates Mordecai- Jewish servant of the King who would not bow to Haman

  • M’s niece- Esther has become new queen

  • Kings grants her wisHangs Haman

  • E and M are classic pious Jews

  • God tells Purim

  • Deals with issue of whether Jews should be separate or integrated

  • Courage and resourcefulness


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Esther and Haman- Rembrandt


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Daniel

  • Included in prophets

  • But is really apocalyptic

  • Apocalyptic literature- greatest popularity 200BC-100AD

  • Time of persecution of Jews, later Christians

  • Roots in prophetic literature

  • Day of the Lord- God will vindicate


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Daniel

  • Written during persecution by Antiochus IV (167-164 BC)

  • Men of faith can resist temptation and conquer adversity

  • Written to give comfort and courage during time of persecution

  • Characterized by great visions promising deliverance and glory to Jews

  • Arrival of the Kingdom of God

  • Son of Man- chapter 7

  • Also written to resist Hellenism


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Daniel

  • Daniel- an exile

  • Name means - my judge is God

  • 3 Parts

    • 1- six stories about Daniel and three companions at royal courst in Babylon

    • 2- (chapters 7-12)- symbolic visions

      • 4 kingdoms under which Jews will live from Babylonian conquest through God’s kingdom

    • 3-13-14- three other stories- only in Greek


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Daniel- 1st Part

  • Daniel has position of influence

  • But keeps Jewish laws and customs

  • Refuses to worship pagan idols

  • Thrown into lion’s den- God intervenes

  • Accusers meet fate instead

  • Daniel predicts destruction of Babylon

  • God protects those who remain faithful


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Daniel and the Lion’s Den-Rubens


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Daniel- 2nd part

  • Heavenly destruction of Israel’s tormenters

  • Addressing situation with Antiochus

  • Using symbols- can hide message from authorities

  • Apocalyse- revealing- to believers through symbols, numbers,etc

  • Unveiling


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Daniel- Apocalyptic

  • Author usually chooses a pseudonym holy or heroic figure from history

  • Cosmic viewpoint- whole universe involved in conflict

  • Day of Judgment- God will do the fighting

  • The just must wait for Day of the Lord

  • The just will rise from the dead 12:1-4

  • Angels are messengers of God

  • Expectation of Messiah- Son of Man 7:13-14


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Break


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Psalm with Commentary


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Psalms

  • 150 psalms

  • Called Psalter

  • Hymns used in worship

  • Arranged into 5 parts- like Pentateuch

  • More laments in first half

  • More songs of praise in second half


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Psalms

  • Psalm 1- an intro to whole book

  • Psalms2-41 ends with doxology 41:14

  • Psalms 42-72 ends with doxology 72:18-20

  • Psalms 73-89 ends with doxology 89:53

  • Psalms 90-106 ends with doxology 106:48

  • Psalms 107-150 -possible end at 119 with pilgrimage songs at end


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Psalms

  • Origin in worship

  • Very big in Temple worship

  • Meant to be sung

  • Many titles include instructions- ex. 4 and 6

  • Written over a timespan of 1000 years

  • 73 attributed to David

  • Others may have been cantors attached to Temple


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David


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Types of Psalms

  • Common classification- by literary type

    • Hymns

      • Enthronement - celebrate God’s kingship------93

      • Songs of Zion- show devotion to Holy city of Jerusalem---46

    • Psalm 100- general hymn

      • An invitation to praise God

      • Body- reasons for praising God

      • Conclusion- repeats introduction or expresses a prayer

  • Psalms 8, 19, 29, 33- examples

  • Songs of Zion- 46, 48, 76, 84, 87

  • Enthronement- 47, 93, 95-99


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Types of Psalms

  • Supplications- Laments

    • Largest number- about 40 individual laments and 12 national or communal laments

    • Ex: 22-individual-freedom from false accusation

    • EX: 51- individual

    • Ex: 137- community

    • Structure:

      • Calling on God’s name

      • Description of the need

      • Petition for deliverance

      • Reasons why God should grant deliverance

      • Expression of confidence in God- grateful praise

  • Sudden shift from lament to praise


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Types of Laments

  • Psalm of trust

    • Emphasis on expressions of confidence

  • Thanksgiving- ex 118

    • Gratitude to God

    • Communal and individual

    • Structure similar to hymns


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Types of Psalms

  • Royal Psalms

    • Royal laments- 144:1-11

    • Royal Thanksgiving 18, 21, 118

      • King is the speaker

  • Wisdom Psalms

    • Ex: 1, 34, 37, 49, 112, 128

      • Happy the one who

      • A teacher speaking to a pupil

      • Proverbs

      • Righteous vs. wicked

      • Advice on how to live

      • Reward and punishment


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Types of Psalms

  • Liturgical Psalms

  • Entrance liturgies- 15, 24:3-6, 15:1, 24:3

    • Ask who has right to enter Temple

    • Response of the priests- 15: 2-5


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Other types of Psalms

  • Individual song of confidence- 23

  • Wedding song- 45

  • Coming messiah- 2, 72, 110

  • Penetential Pslams- 51


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Types of Psalms

  • Historical Psalms

  • Contain accounts of God’s great works in history of Israel

    • Ex. 78, 105-106, 135-136

      • Salvation history

        • 78 and 106 contrast Israel’s rebellion with God’s graciousness

        • 105- praises Yahweh for faithfulness to covenant

  • Creation Psalms- 74, 89, 104 ex

  • Savior Psalms- 28, 42, 62 ex


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Attributes of God- Exercise

  • 71:22

  • 135:13

  • 18:2

  • 31:2-5

  • 90:14

  • 18:25-26

  • 108:41-42

  • 33:4-5


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Major Themes in Psalms

  • Sovereignty of God

    • Power

    • Creation

    • Life- giver

  • God is Savior

  • God can never be fully known

  • God is trustworthy and faithful

  • God is a just God


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Major Themes in Psalms

  • There is only 1 God

  • He invites us to return friendship

  • Loving God means loving your neighbor

  • Loving God means a commitment to justice

  • We are a people of hope

  • The beginning of wisdom is the fear of the Lord


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Psalms Today

  • Used in Liturgical Worship

  • Personal Prayer

  • Liturgy of the Hours

  • Responsorial Psalm

  • Rosary a recognition of the Psalms


  • Login