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NEED TO STUDY SCIENCE Science “to know” Relevance to almost every profession Involves method of inquiry requiring reason Requires understanding; not memorization Provides insight into the scientific method. Origin of Science Cyclic nature of seasons and navigational needs - Astronomy

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  • NEED TO STUDY SCIENCE

    • Science “to know”

    • Relevance to almost every profession

    • Involves method of inquiry requiring reason

    • Requires understanding; not memorization

    • Provides insight into the scientific method


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  • Origin of Science

    • Cyclic nature of seasons and navigational needs - Astronomy

    • Farming - Geometry to measure fields

    • Taxes and Business - Arithmetic, weights and measures

    • Beginning of mathematics - Replace multiple words for numbers with system (Babylonian sexigesimal number system ~3000 BC)



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  • Egyptian Astronomy clay tablet of about 1700 BC

    • Measured 365 day year - 4000 BC

    • Relation between Astronomy and Astrology

    • Star charts, 365 1/4 day calendar; 3:4:5 triangle; water clock - 2000 BC

    • How would you accomplish these tasks today? Describe a method to determine the length of day and year?


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  • Greek Science clay tablet of about 1700 BC

    • Naturalistic not mystic interpretation of the universe

    • Believed earth was a sphere - 400 BC

    • Ionian Philosophers - 2500 BC to 300 BC

    • Hippocrates ( 500 BC); Pythagoras (530 BC); Aristarchus (270 BC)

    • Eratosthenes (276-195 BC- measured the diameter of the earth)


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  • Other Important Greek Philosophers the earth to be 24,650 miles (real value (24,900 miles )

    • Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) Organized Lyceum; believed stars were distant; observed phases of the moon; observed stellar parallax

    • Ptolemy (127-151 A.D.) member of the Museum at Alexandria (Ptolemy,Euclid, Eratosthenes, Archimedes,); wrote the “Almagest” which describes geocentric universe


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  • DARK AGES the earth to be 24,650 miles (real value (24,900 miles )

    • Fall of Rome in 410 A.D.

    • Most information from previous civilizations lost

    • Knowledge saved in Middle East

    • Greek and Latin manuscripts translated into Arabic

    • Eventually returned to western Europe


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  • Copernicus (1473-1543) the earth to be 24,650 miles (real value (24,900 miles )

    • The sun is at rest (heliocyntric model)

    • The earth is spherical

    • Planets revolve about sun

    • Periods of revolution decrease with orbit radii

    • The motion of planets about the sun involve epicycles (34 circles)


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  • Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) the earth to be 24,650 miles (real value (24,900 miles )

    • Danish Astronomer

    • Developed accurate astronomical instruments (quadrant )

    • Built elaborate observatory

    • Plotted motions of planets

    • Improved measurements of Greeks by a factor of 6 ( 5’ of arc )


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  • Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) the earth to be 24,650 miles (real value (24,900 miles )

    • http://es.rice.edu/ES/humsoc/Galileo/People/kepler.html

    • Used Tycho’s Data and developed three laws of Planetary motion

    • Firmly established heliocentric theory

    • Published his results in 1609, 1618


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  • Kepler’s Laws the earth to be 24,650 miles (real value (24,900 miles )

    • Orbits are elliptical

    • Orbits sweep out equal areas in equal times

    • Period2 = Distance3

      (If Period in in years and Distance is in AU)

      (AU - astronomical unit - distance between earth and sun)


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  • Galileo Galilei( 1564-1692 ) the earth to be 24,650 miles (real value (24,900 miles )

    • http://es.rice.edu/ES/humsoc/Galileo/

    • Constructed 30x telescope

      • Phases of Venus

      • Structure on moon


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  • Moons of Jupiter the earth to be 24,650 miles (real value (24,900 miles )

  • Sunspots

  • Many new stars

  • Structure of Saturn


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  • Galileo the earth to be 24,650 miles (real value (24,900 miles )

    • Studied the motion of falling bodies

    • Refuted the teachings of Aristotle

    • Reinstituted the scientific method

    • Suffered under the reformation

    • Published the Dialog Concerning the Two New Sciences in 1638 at age 70

    • Began the modern sciences of astronomy and mechanics


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  • Newton (1642 - 1727) the earth to be 24,650 miles (real value (24,900 miles )

    • Developed Mechanics

    • (study of motion)

    • To do this had to invent Calculus


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  • Newton’s Laws of Motion the earth to be 24,650 miles (real value (24,900 miles )

    • A body in motion will remain in motion unless a force acts upon it.

    • Force = mass times acceleration (F = m a)

    • Every action has an equal and opposite reaction


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  • Lunar eclipse the earth to be 24,650 miles (real value (24,900 miles )


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  • Solar Eclipse the earth to be 24,650 miles (real value (24,900 miles )

    • Total Solar Eclipses occur when the umbra of the Moon's shadow touches a region on the surface of the Earth.

    • Partial Solar Eclipses occur when the penumbra of the Moon's shadow passes over a region on the Earth's surface.

    • Annular Solar Eclipses occur when a region on the Earth's surface is in line with the umbra, but the distances are such that the tip of the umbra does not reach the Earth's surface.


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  • Homework the earth to be 24,650 miles (real value (24,900 miles )

  • p. 40 review and discussion:

    2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 14

    answer in complete sentences


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