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NEED TO STUDY SCIENCE Science “to know” Relevance to almost every profession Involves method of inquiry requiring reason

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NEED TO STUDY SCIENCE Science “to know” Relevance to almost every profession Involves method of inquiry requiring reason Requires understanding; not memorization Provides insight into the scientific method. Origin of Science Cyclic nature of seasons and navigational needs - Astronomy

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slide1
NEED TO STUDY SCIENCE
    • Science “to know”
    • Relevance to almost every profession
    • Involves method of inquiry requiring reason
    • Requires understanding; not memorization
    • Provides insight into the scientific method
slide2
Origin of Science
    • Cyclic nature of seasons and navigational needs - Astronomy
    • Farming - Geometry to measure fields
    • Taxes and Business - Arithmetic, weights and measures
    • Beginning of mathematics - Replace multiple words for numbers with system (Babylonian sexigesimal number system ~3000 BC)
slide4
Egyptian Astronomy
    • Measured 365 day year - 4000 BC
    • Relation between Astronomy and Astrology
    • Star charts, 365 1/4 day calendar; 3:4:5 triangle; water clock - 2000 BC
    • How would you accomplish these tasks today? Describe a method to determine the length of day and year?
slide5
Greek Science
    • Naturalistic not mystic interpretation of the universe
    • Believed earth was a sphere - 400 BC
    • Ionian Philosophers - 2500 BC to 300 BC
    • Hippocrates ( 500 BC); Pythagoras (530 BC); Aristarchus (270 BC)
    • Eratosthenes (276-195 BC- measured the diameter of the earth)
slide6
Eratosthenes (276-195 B.C.) measured the circumference of the earth to be 24,650 miles (real value (24,900 miles )
slide7
Other Important Greek Philosophers
    • Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) Organized Lyceum; believed stars were distant; observed phases of the moon; observed stellar parallax
    • Ptolemy (127-151 A.D.) member of the Museum at Alexandria (Ptolemy,Euclid, Eratosthenes, Archimedes,); wrote the “Almagest” which describes geocentric universe
slide8
DARK AGES
    • Fall of Rome in 410 A.D.
    • Most information from previous civilizations lost
    • Knowledge saved in Middle East
    • Greek and Latin manuscripts translated into Arabic
    • Eventually returned to western Europe
slide10
Copernicus (1473-1543)
    • The sun is at rest (heliocyntric model)
    • The earth is spherical
    • Planets revolve about sun
    • Periods of revolution decrease with orbit radii
    • The motion of planets about the sun involve epicycles (34 circles)
slide11
Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)
    • Danish Astronomer
    • Developed accurate astronomical instruments (quadrant )
    • Built elaborate observatory
    • Plotted motions of planets
    • Improved measurements of Greeks by a factor of 6 ( 5’ of arc )
slide12
Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
    • http://es.rice.edu/ES/humsoc/Galileo/People/kepler.html
    • Used Tycho’s Data and developed three laws of Planetary motion
    • Firmly established heliocentric theory
    • Published his results in 1609, 1618
slide13
Kepler’s Laws
    • Orbits are elliptical
    • Orbits sweep out equal areas in equal times
    • Period2 = Distance3

(If Period in in years and Distance is in AU)

(AU - astronomical unit - distance between earth and sun)

slide14
Galileo Galilei( 1564-1692 )
    • http://es.rice.edu/ES/humsoc/Galileo/
    • Constructed 30x telescope
      • Phases of Venus
      • Structure on moon
slide15
Moons of Jupiter
  • Sunspots
  • Many new stars
  • Structure of Saturn
slide16
Galileo
    • Studied the motion of falling bodies
    • Refuted the teachings of Aristotle
    • Reinstituted the scientific method
    • Suffered under the reformation
    • Published the Dialog Concerning the Two New Sciences in 1638 at age 70
    • Began the modern sciences of astronomy and mechanics
slide17
Newton (1642 - 1727)
    • Developed Mechanics
    • (study of motion)
    • To do this had to invent Calculus
slide18
Newton’s Laws of Motion
    • A body in motion will remain in motion unless a force acts upon it.
    • Force = mass times acceleration (F = m a)
    • Every action has an equal and opposite reaction
slide19
Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation
  • Note that it depends upon 1/r2
slide22
Solar Eclipse
    • Total Solar Eclipses occur when the umbra of the Moon\'s shadow touches a region on the surface of the Earth.
    • Partial Solar Eclipses occur when the penumbra of the Moon\'s shadow passes over a region on the Earth\'s surface.
    • Annular Solar Eclipses occur when a region on the Earth\'s surface is in line with the umbra, but the distances are such that the tip of the umbra does not reach the Earth\'s surface.
slide23
Homework
  • p. 40 review and discussion:

2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 14

answer in complete sentences

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