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Global Economy and Global Warming. Dr. Sandra Cruz-Pol Professor Electrical and Computer Engineering CLiMMATe Lab Director (Cloud Microwave Measurements of ATmospheric Event) UPRM-PI for the Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA) February 22, 2007.

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Global economy and global warming l.jpg

Global Economy and Global Warming

Dr. Sandra Cruz-Pol

Professor Electrical and Computer Engineering

CLiMMATe Lab Director (Cloud Microwave Measurements of ATmospheric Event)

UPRM-PI for the Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA)

February 22, 2007

This presentation can be found at http ece uprm edu pol outreach l.jpg

This presentation can be found at:

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Global Economy

What’s the advantage of enhancing global economy?





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  • Problem:

    • Global Economy

    • Global Warming


    • individuals,

    • industry-governments

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Economic Divide

World $


*Sachs, 2005


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GNP per capita

purchasing power parity

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Poverty Trap – Clinical Economics

  • Physical Geography

    • Arid conditions, high transport cost, isolation, mountain ranges, lack of navigable rivers, disease, climate

  • Cultural Barriers

    • Role of women, ethic minorities, education

  • Geopolitics: war, trade barriers, sanctions, debt

  • Lack of technology

  • Closed market

    =>Countries too poor to develop

    =>Need $ to hop onto 1st step of economic ladder

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Why did England flourished?

  • Open market

  • Island- used to navigation, trading

  • Technology- coal, steam engine

  • Weather – not prompt for disease, mosquitoes

  • Education

  • Basic needs: Nutrition, Health, Water

  • Infrastructure

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China & India

Certain conditions helped these 2 countries flourish economically. Usually Green Revolution follows technological growth.

  • India: invested in education; Indian Institutes of Technology, now paying off; now a world IT leader.

    • Was an English colony until 1947.

    • Began economic reforms in 1991 (Open Market)

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China & India…

  • China: growing economic rate (9%!) in the World, after it opened to global trading.

    • Ancient civilization. Past technology leader, until 1400’s.

    • 1434 Ming emperor closes international trade, dismantled world’s largest fleet of ocean vessels.

    • Japan invasion 1937. Mao Tse-tung 1949- 1976.

    • Market reforms began 1978.

***Global Warming: coal , oil…

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Why is Africa an exception?

Too much Corruption

Laziness of people

+Sexually active: AIDS

Bad land-use

---------------------------------Myth#1: Truth: Less corrupted

----------------------------Myth#2Truth: Backbreaking labor

----------------------------------Myth#3Truth: Equal or less

-----------------------Myth#4Truth: Global warming

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Lake Chad

  • Was the 6th largest lake in the World!

  • A study by U. Wisconsin-Madison and NASA's EOS, the lake is now 1/20th of the size it was 35 years ago.

  • W. Africa (Chad, Niger, Nigeria, & Cameroon), the region has suffered from an increasingly dry climate, experiencing decline in rain since early 1960s.

We are causing Extreme poverty in Africa due to our emissions which accounts for 25% of all world emissions compared to Africa’s 3%.

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Why is Africa an exception?

  • Geography

    • Disease prompt weather: malaria

    • Vast regions with no navigable rivers

    • Sparsely populated

    • Lack of infrastructure: roads, bridges, etc.

    • Lack of health systems

  • Years of exploitation

  • Political reasons; frontiers set by Europeans,

  • Huge external debt

  • Global warming due to developed world emissions

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We can banish extreme poverty ,

  • “yet 8 million people die each year because they are too poor to survive.” , J.Sachs, The End of Poverty

    With only $70/person/year for 5 years, we can help poor countries be self-sustained! ($0.21 daily)

    • Currently, U.S. gives ~$15/pp/yr.

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World's governments committed to provide 0.7% of rich-countries' gross domestic product (GDP) to Official Development Assistance.

First pledged 35 years ago in a 1970 General Assembly Resolution, … has been affirmed many times over the years, including the 2002 Monterrey Consensus.

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Charities rich-countries' gross domestic product (GDP) to Official Development Assistance. help provide the basics: foodmedicinesvaccineseducation shelterclean water

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Extreme poverty rich-countries' gross domestic product (GDP) to Official Development Assistance.

UN Millennium Project GOALS:


  • Half extreme poverty by 2015

  • Aims to end extreme poverty by 2025

  • What is extreme poverty?

  • Versus relative poverty?

  • Mp goals l.jpg
    MP Goals: rich-countries' gross domestic product (GDP) to Official Development Assistance.

    Significant progress:1990 – 2002

    • Average overall incomes increased by ~ 21 percent.

    • The # of people in extreme poverty declined by an estimated 130 million.

    • Child mortality rates fell from 103 to 88 deaths per 1,000 live births a year.

    • Life expectancy rose from 63 to 65 years.

    • An additional 8% of the developing world's people received access to water.

    • And an additional 15% acquired access to improved sanitation services.

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    Why bother? rich-countries' gross domestic product (GDP) to Official Development Assistance.

    -----------------------------------------------------------Another Myth!

    Less poor abroad means more poor here.

    • “Hard evidence has established strong linkages between extreme poverty abroad and the threats to national security.”

    • Better global economy provides new technologies developed in a diverse world. More products for everyone.

      “Eliminating extreme poverty is a global responsibility that will have global benefits”

    • Money spent on war instead could go to help the poor be self-sustained, to new technologies to stop global warming.

    • This is the only way to achieve Global Peace

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    Poverty - a conflict generating factor rich-countries' gross domestic product (GDP) to Official Development Assistance.

    “There is a close relation between poverty and internal conflict.“ Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 2001

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    Global Warming rich-countries' gross domestic product (GDP) to Official Development Assistance.

    • Global Warming is NOT a theory; it’s a FACT.*

    • Scientific consensus: It’s caused by human activity, mainly carbon dioxide emissions.*

    • It’s happening now*

    • Some of its consequences are irreversible!*

    *According to the most recent UN-IPCC 4th report published on Feb 2, 2007.

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    Global Warming rich-countries' gross domestic product (GDP) to Official Development Assistance.

    Global warming28 l.jpg
    Global Warming rich-countries' gross domestic product (GDP) to Official Development Assistance.

    • World before Industrial revolution, 1800

      • CO2 level low <280ppm.

      • ~No fossil fuel emissions (oil, coal, gas).

    • Radiative transfer yielded thermodynamic global climate equilibrium for the last 100,000 years

      • Atmosphere like a blanket

        Heat-trapping IR greenhouse gases.

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    A report in 2006 by economist Sir Nicholas Stern concludes that global warming could shrink the global economy by 20%!

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    CO that 2 in the atmosphereYears: 1960-2000

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    CO that 2 in Atmosphere

    Years: 1000 -2100

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    } that

    Cold due to sulfuric emissions: (1940-1970) which caused lung cancer, asthma & acid rain

    Clean Air Act

    Global average temperatureYears: 1860-2000

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    • Polar caps melt

    • Sea level rise

    • Extreme temperatures: BOTH cold and hot

    • Cyclones/tornadoes

    • Drought / floods

    • Disease

    • Agriculture losses

    • Water (potable) scarcity

    • Extinction of animal species, corals, vegetation

    • Worst case scenario: stop ocean conveyor belt

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    Puerto Rico

    Dry Season

    Puerto Rico

    Wet Season

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    Kilimanjaro (Tanzania, Africa)

    30 years later…

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    Patagonia (Argentina) Glacier in S.A.



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    Costa Rica

    First official lost species due to Global warming:

    golden toad

    Female Male

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    • 10 hottest years ever, occurred in the last 14 yrs.

    • Hottest of all time, 2006.

    • 2004 1st hurricane ever in the S. Altantic Ocean

    • 2005 highest # of hurricanes,

      • most intense, 6 Greek letters

    • 2005 Wilma strongest hurricane ever recorded AO


    • 2006 Monica strongest hurricane ever recorded

    • Luckily, this year, El Niño decreases # hurricanes

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    Potential Flooding in PR

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    Icebergs with caves = broken food chain

    60% of krill population killed because of this.

    Krill are small shrimp-like crustaceans zooplankton, food for baleen whales, mantas, whale sharks, seals, and a few seabird species

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    Worst case scenario: abrupt change (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)

    Due to change in salinity, if Artic keeps melting, this current could stop, creating a small ice age in Europe and North America.

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    On top of this…

    New blooming economies want to live their own version of the “American Dream”.

    Example: in China, the traditional bicycle lane was closed to lay way to an extra automobile lane. India is now also flourishing economically and greatly increasing their CO2 emissions.

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    Crecimiento Población Mundial














    Tardó TODA la historia de la humanidad para llegar a 1,000 millones en 1800.

    X mil millones

    10,000 BC 5,000 BC Year 0 1000 2000

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    Also Political Issues

    • Oil industry interests,

      • Lobbyists

    • Governments covering up scientific evidence

      • (e.g. NASA climatologist, Jim Hansen)

    • Real cost of Nuclear energy

      • versus cost of clean energy like solar or wind

      • Health hazards, radioactive waste deposit

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    Potential Solutions

    Reduce CO2 emissions:

    • Reduce energy consumption

    • Alternative green power: solar, wind, biofuels,…

    • Reforestation

    • Increase fuel efficiency; e.g. fuel cell, hybrid cars

      Scientific propositions:

    • CO2 sequestration

    • Inject sulfur in stratosphere

    • Distribute iron oxide to SA ocean

      Emission trading- Kyoto Protocol:

    • Signed by 135 nations to reduce emissions.

    • Not signed by U.S. or Australia!, the 2 nations with the highest emissions.

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    Economic advantage

    • Advantage will go to countries that take the leadership to develop renewable energy technologies, green building construction codes, and energy conservation and efficiency.

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    Example: Auto Sales in U.S. 2006

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    Eco Urbana

    Solar powered & rainwater filtration system.

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    The Good News is…

    We can make a difference…

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    We’ve done it before!: Ozone Layer Montreal Protocol's ban on CFCs

    • For years, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were the agents--contributing to the destruction of the Earth's ozone layer.

    • After the Montreal Protocol's ban on CFCs, slightly-more benign HCFCs replaced them..

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    Ahorra $$$, Salva el planeta

    Cada vez que utilizamos electricidad o gasolina, incluso agua, estamos enviando emisiones como CO2 a la atmósfera que la calientan aún más.

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    Los enseres eléctricos aún GASTAN energía

    Se llaman Cargas Fantasmas!!

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    Some examples

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    Ahorras $5 a $50 al mes si: apagas los enseres (o mejor aún desconéctelos) cuando no los estés usando.

    Usa un “power strip” para conectar varios enseres y así los apaga todos a la vez.

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    Mito vs. Realidad: el prender y apagar enseres, los daña. FALSO! Eso ocurría hace 2 décadas. Desconecta y Ahorra!

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    AHORRAS $50 por bombilla durante la vida de la bombilla

    • Usan 75% menos electricidad.

    • Duran 10 veces más.

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    Baterías recargablesón Costo[4 AA y 4 AAA]


    $850+ por cada 8 baterías recargables !!


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    ¿Qué compro?

    • Una estufa o secadora de gas te ahorra unos $25-$50 mensuales!

    • Tender la ropa al sol, ahorra aún más.

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    ¿Qué compro?

    Compra enseres que tengan un bajo uso de energía.


    Puedesahorrar de $10- 60 mensuales por cada uno!!

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    • Siembra árboles

      • Bajan la temperatura del

        hogar hasta 10 grados F!,

      • ¡Aumentar valor de propiedad!

      • Reducen emisiones de CO2

        *El Fideicomiso te regala 200 árboles gratis!

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    • Apágala si no la vas a usar en 1.5 horas o más.

    • NO dejes el “adapter” conectado!!!

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    • Apaga también la impresora y bocinas si no las estás usando.

    • Desconéctalas por las noches.

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    • ¡No dejes el cargador del celular conectado si no lo estás usando!

    • Usa de 70-95% de la energía.

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    ¿Qué compro?

    Un calentador solar

    • Ahorra $40-$100 mensual

    • Dura 30+ años!

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    • Usa abanicos en vez de aires acondicionados en noches frescas.

      • Puedes ahorrar $70-$100 mensualmente!

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    Carros Híbridos

    Ahorras $6,000 en 5 años y $12,000 en 10 años!

    Toma en cuenta gastos inicial y gastos debido a eficiencia de combustible del auto de gasolina versus auto híbrido.

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    ¿Qué compro?

    • Una piscina de fibra de vidrio (fiberglass) gasta 1/3 de la energía que una piscina de concreto

    • Además la de fibra tiene menos filtraciones de agua.

    Escoge piscina de fibra de vidrio

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    Viajes en Avión

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    Other Things to Do– $ with NO initial cost

    • Turn off water faucet,

      • shower not baths, flow

      • change shower head

    • Clean air-conditioning filters

    • Tune-up car, keep balanced, Accelerate minimum only


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    • Turn down Water heater, and air conditioner

      • Use sheets instead of blankets

    • Use cold water for washing cloths!

      • Hang clothes if possible

    • Use dishwasher only when full

      • Wash by hand if possible

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    • Eating habits:

      • Eat less meat (less methane);

      • Eat local products

    • Car pooling, walking or biking

    • Avoid sanitary dishes/napkins

      • Both styrofoam or paper

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    • Buy products with least packaging

      • Large family packs

      • Gift bags instead of wrapping

      • Water bottles! 

    *Packaging and clean water production needs a lot of energy and releases tons of CO2 in the atmosphere annually.

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    • Be a wise consumer

      • Buy less

      • Give away things you not longer use.

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    • Recycle!

      • (plastic, paper, cardboard, cans, glass)

    • Email your senators, government officials:

      • Sign petition at

      • Sign petition at

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    To Do…

    Transportation accounts for 67% of oil used!

    • Use public transportation

    • Eat organic products (better health, less Br)

    • Consider wind or solar power

    • Use silicone or dark baking pans: Bake T-25oF

    • Use reusable plastic or cloth coffee filter

    Green means it’s also good for your HEALTH.

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    Small changes, make a big difference:

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    We are ONE human race; we only have ONE planet.

    Let’s use its resources efficiently so that we can all benefit from it.

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    Book References:

    • The End of Poverty by Jeffrey Sachs

    • Weather Makers by Tim Flannery

    • An Inconvenient Truth by Al Gore

    • The World is Flat by Thomas Friedman

    • Global Warming by Chris Spence

    • Pathologies of Power, Paul Farmer

    • Mini Atlas of Global Development, The World Bank

    • Economics of Climate Change, Sir Nick Stern

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    Web References…









    • FUN!! (PC games)