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Global Economy and Global Warming. Dr. Sandra Cruz-Pol Professor Electrical and Computer Engineering CLiMMATe Lab Director (Cloud Microwave Measurements of ATmospheric Event) UPRM-PI for the Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA) February 22, 2007.

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Global economy and global warming l.jpg

Global Economy and Global Warming

Dr. Sandra Cruz-Pol

Professor Electrical and Computer Engineering

CLiMMATe Lab Director (Cloud Microwave Measurements of ATmospheric Event)

UPRM-PI for the Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA)

February 22, 2007


This presentation can be found at http ece uprm edu pol outreach l.jpg

This presentation can be found at:

http://ece.uprm.edu/~pol/outreach


Global economy l.jpg
Global Economy

What’s the advantage of enhancing global economy?

Global

Warming

Global

Economy


Outline l.jpg
Outline

  • Problem:

    • Global Economy

    • Global Warming

      2.Solutions:

    • individuals,

    • industry-governments


Economic divide l.jpg
Economic Divide

World $

1800

*Sachs, 2005

YEAR


Gnp per capita l.jpg
GNP per capita

purchasing power parity


Poverty trap clinical economics l.jpg
Poverty Trap – Clinical Economics

  • Physical Geography

    • Arid conditions, high transport cost, isolation, mountain ranges, lack of navigable rivers, disease, climate

  • Cultural Barriers

    • Role of women, ethic minorities, education

  • Geopolitics: war, trade barriers, sanctions, debt

  • Lack of technology

  • Closed market

    =>Countries too poor to develop

    =>Need $ to hop onto 1st step of economic ladder


Why did england flourished l.jpg
Why did England flourished?

  • Open market

  • Island- used to navigation, trading

  • Technology- coal, steam engine

  • Weather – not prompt for disease, mosquitoes

  • Education

  • Basic needs: Nutrition, Health, Water

  • Infrastructure


China india l.jpg
China & India

Certain conditions helped these 2 countries flourish economically. Usually Green Revolution follows technological growth.

  • India: invested in education; Indian Institutes of Technology, now paying off; now a world IT leader.

    • Was an English colony until 1947.

    • Began economic reforms in 1991 (Open Market)


China india11 l.jpg
China & India…

  • China: growing economic rate (9%!) in the World, after it opened to global trading.

    • Ancient civilization. Past technology leader, until 1400’s.

    • 1434 Ming emperor closes international trade, dismantled world’s largest fleet of ocean vessels.

    • Japan invasion 1937. Mao Tse-tung 1949- 1976.

    • Market reforms began 1978.

***Global Warming: coal , oil…


Why is africa an exception l.jpg
Why is Africa an exception?

Too much Corruption

Laziness of people

+Sexually active: AIDS

Bad land-use

---------------------------------Myth#1: Truth: Less corrupted

----------------------------Myth#2Truth: Backbreaking labor

----------------------------------Myth#3Truth: Equal or less

-----------------------Myth#4Truth: Global warming


Lake chad l.jpg
Lake Chad

  • Was the 6th largest lake in the World!

  • A study by U. Wisconsin-Madison and NASA's EOS, the lake is now 1/20th of the size it was 35 years ago.

  • W. Africa (Chad, Niger, Nigeria, & Cameroon), the region has suffered from an increasingly dry climate, experiencing decline in rain since early 1960s.

We are causing Extreme poverty in Africa due to our emissions which accounts for 25% of all world emissions compared to Africa’s 3%.


Why is africa an exception14 l.jpg
Why is Africa an exception?

  • Geography

    • Disease prompt weather: malaria

    • Vast regions with no navigable rivers

    • Sparsely populated

    • Lack of infrastructure: roads, bridges, etc.

    • Lack of health systems

  • Years of exploitation

  • Political reasons; frontiers set by Europeans,

  • Huge external debt

  • Global warming due to developed world emissions


We can banish extreme poverty l.jpg
We can banish extreme poverty ,

  • “yet 8 million people die each year because they are too poor to survive.” , J.Sachs, The End of Poverty

    With only $70/person/year for 5 years, we can help poor countries be self-sustained! ($0.21 daily)

    • Currently, U.S. gives ~$15/pp/yr.


Slide20 l.jpg

World's governments committed to provide 0.7% of rich-countries' gross domestic product (GDP) to Official Development Assistance.

First pledged 35 years ago in a 1970 General Assembly Resolution, … has been affirmed many times over the years, including the 2002 Monterrey Consensus.


Charities help provide the basics food medicines vaccines education shelter clean water l.jpg
Charities rich-countries' gross domestic product (GDP) to Official Development Assistance. help provide the basics: foodmedicinesvaccineseducation shelterclean water


Extreme poverty l.jpg
Extreme poverty rich-countries' gross domestic product (GDP) to Official Development Assistance.

UN Millennium Project GOALS:

(www.unmillenniumproject.org)

  • Half extreme poverty by 2015

  • Aims to end extreme poverty by 2025

  • What is extreme poverty?

  • Versus relative poverty?


  • Mp goals l.jpg
    MP Goals: rich-countries' gross domestic product (GDP) to Official Development Assistance.

    Significant progress:1990 – 2002

    • Average overall incomes increased by ~ 21 percent.

    • The # of people in extreme poverty declined by an estimated 130 million.

    • Child mortality rates fell from 103 to 88 deaths per 1,000 live births a year.

    • Life expectancy rose from 63 to 65 years.

    • An additional 8% of the developing world's people received access to water.

    • And an additional 15% acquired access to improved sanitation services.


    Why bother l.jpg
    Why bother? rich-countries' gross domestic product (GDP) to Official Development Assistance.

    -----------------------------------------------------------Another Myth!

    Less poor abroad means more poor here.

    • “Hard evidence has established strong linkages between extreme poverty abroad and the threats to national security.”

    • Better global economy provides new technologies developed in a diverse world. More products for everyone.

      “Eliminating extreme poverty is a global responsibility that will have global benefits”

    • Money spent on war instead could go to help the poor be self-sustained, to new technologies to stop global warming.

    • This is the only way to achieve Global Peace


    Poverty a conflict generating factor l.jpg
    Poverty - a conflict generating factor rich-countries' gross domestic product (GDP) to Official Development Assistance.

    “There is a close relation between poverty and internal conflict.“ Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 2001


    Global warming l.jpg
    Global Warming rich-countries' gross domestic product (GDP) to Official Development Assistance.

    • Global Warming is NOT a theory; it’s a FACT.*

    • Scientific consensus: It’s caused by human activity, mainly carbon dioxide emissions.*

    • It’s happening now*

    • Some of its consequences are irreversible!*

    *According to the most recent UN-IPCC 4th report published on Feb 2, 2007.


    Global warming27 l.jpg
    Global Warming rich-countries' gross domestic product (GDP) to Official Development Assistance.


    Global warming28 l.jpg
    Global Warming rich-countries' gross domestic product (GDP) to Official Development Assistance.

    • World before Industrial revolution, 1800

      • CO2 level low <280ppm.

      • ~No fossil fuel emissions (oil, coal, gas).

    • Radiative transfer yielded thermodynamic global climate equilibrium for the last 100,000 years

      • Atmosphere like a blanket

        Heat-trapping IR greenhouse gases.


    Slide29 l.jpg

    A report in 2006 by economist Sir Nicholas Stern concludes that global warming could shrink the global economy by 20%!


    Co 2 in the atmosphere years 1960 2000 l.jpg
    CO that 2 in the atmosphereYears: 1960-2000


    Slide32 l.jpg

    CO that 2 in Atmosphere

    Years: 1000 -2100


    Global average temperature years 1860 2000 l.jpg

    } that

    Cold due to sulfuric emissions: (1940-1970) which caused lung cancer, asthma & acid rain

    Clean Air Act

    Global average temperatureYears: 1860-2000


    Slide35 l.jpg

    http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stmhttp://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm


    Consequences l.jpg
    Consequences:http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm

    • Polar caps melt

    • Sea level rise

    • Extreme temperatures: BOTH cold and hot

    • Cyclones/tornadoes

    • Drought / floods

    • Disease

    • Agriculture losses

    • Water (potable) scarcity

    • Extinction of animal species, corals, vegetation

    • Worst case scenario: stop ocean conveyor belt


    Slide39 l.jpg

    Puerto Ricohttp://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm

    Dry Season

    Puerto Rico

    Wet Season


    Kilimanjaro tanzania africa l.jpg
    Kilimanjaro (Tanzania, Africa)http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm

    30 years later…


    Patagonia argentina longest glacier in s a l.jpg
    Patagonia (Argentina)http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stmLongest Glacier in S.A.

    1928

    2004


    Costa rica l.jpg
    Costa Ricahttp://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm

    First official lost species due to Global warming:

    golden toad

    Female Male


    Hurricanes l.jpg
    Hurricaneshttp://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm

    • 10 hottest years ever, occurred in the last 14 yrs.

    • Hottest of all time, 2006.

    • 2004 1st hurricane ever in the S. Altantic Ocean

    • 2005 highest # of hurricanes,

      • most intense, 6 Greek letters

    • 2005 Wilma strongest hurricane ever recorded AO

      Then…

    • 2006 Monica strongest hurricane ever recorded

    • Luckily, this year, El Niño decreases # hurricanes


    Potential flooding in pr l.jpg
    Potential Flooding in PRhttp://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm


    Icebergs with caves broken food chain l.jpg
    Icebergs with caves = broken food chainhttp://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm

    60% of krill population killed because of this.

    Krill are small shrimp-like crustaceans zooplankton, food for baleen whales, mantas, whale sharks, seals, and a few seabird species


    Worst case scenario abrupt change ipcc intergovernmental panel on climate change l.jpg
    Worst case scenario: abrupt changehttp://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stmIPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)

    Due to change in salinity, if Artic keeps melting, this current could stop, creating a small ice age in Europe and North America.


    On top of this l.jpg

    On top of this…http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm

    New blooming economies want to live their own version of the “American Dream”.

    Example: in China, the traditional bicycle lane was closed to lay way to an extra automobile lane. India is now also flourishing economically and greatly increasing their CO2 emissions.


    Slide48 l.jpg

    Crecimiento Población Mundialhttp://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm

    2000

    1987

    1975

    1960

    1930

    1800

    6

    5

    4

    3

    2

    1

    0

    Tardó TODA la historia de la humanidad para llegar a 1,000 millones en 1800.

    X mil millones

    10,000 BC 5,000 BC Year 0 1000 2000


    Also political issues l.jpg
    Also Political Issueshttp://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm

    • Oil industry interests,

      • Lobbyists

    • Governments covering up scientific evidence

      • (e.g. NASA climatologist, Jim Hansen)

    • Real cost of Nuclear energy

      • versus cost of clean energy like solar or wind

      • Health hazards, radioactive waste deposit


    Potential solutions l.jpg
    Potential Solutionshttp://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm

    Reduce CO2 emissions:

    • Reduce energy consumption

    • Alternative green power: solar, wind, biofuels,…

    • Reforestation

    • Increase fuel efficiency; e.g. fuel cell, hybrid cars

      Scientific propositions:

    • CO2 sequestration

    • Inject sulfur in stratosphere

    • Distribute iron oxide to SA ocean

      Emission trading- Kyoto Protocol:

    • Signed by 135 nations to reduce emissions.

    • Not signed by U.S. or Australia!, the 2 nations with the highest emissions.


    Economic advantage l.jpg
    Economic advantagehttp://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm

    • Advantage will go to countries that take the leadership to develop renewable energy technologies, green building construction codes, and energy conservation and efficiency.


    Example auto sales in u s 2006 l.jpg
    Example:http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm Auto Sales in U.S. 2006

    http://advisor.investopedia.com/news/


    Eco urbana l.jpg
    Eco Urbanahttp://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm

    Solar powered & rainwater filtration system.


    The good news is l.jpg

    The Good News is…http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm

    We can make a difference…


    We ve done it before ozone layer montreal protocol s ban on cfcs l.jpg
    We’ve done it before!:http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm Ozone Layer Montreal Protocol's ban on CFCs

    • For years, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were the agents--contributing to the destruction of the Earth's ozone layer.

    • After the Montreal Protocol's ban on CFCs, slightly-more benign HCFCs replaced them..


    Ahorra salva el planeta l.jpg
    Ahorra $$$, Salva el planetahttp://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm

    Cada vez que utilizamos electricidad o gasolina, incluso agua, estamos enviando emisiones como CO2 a la atmósfera que la calientan aún más.


    Slide58 l.jpg

    Los enseres eléctricos aún http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stmAPAGADOS GASTAN energía

    Se llaman Cargas Fantasmas!!


    Slide59 l.jpg

    Some exampleshttp://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm


    Slide60 l.jpg

    Ahorras $5 a $50 al mes si:http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm apagas los enseres (o mejor aún desconéctelos) cuando no los estés usando.

    Usa un “power strip” para conectar varios enseres y así los apaga todos a la vez.


    Slide61 l.jpg

    Mito vs. Realidad:http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm el prender y apagar enseres, los daña. FALSO! Eso ocurría hace 2 décadas. Desconecta y Ahorra!


    Luces fluorescentes compactas l.jpg
    Luces FLUORESCENTES COMPACTAShttp://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm

    AHORRAS $50 por bombilla durante la vida de la bombilla

    • Usan 75% menos electricidad.

    • Duran 10 veces más.


    Bater as recargables comparaci n costo 4 aa y 4 aaa l.jpg
    Baterías recargableshttp://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stmComparación Costo[4 AA y 4 AAA]

    AHORRAS

    $850+ por cada 8 baterías recargables !!

    *


    Qu compro l.jpg
    ¿Qué compro?http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm

    • Una estufa o secadora de gas te ahorra unos $25-$50 mensuales!

    • Tender la ropa al sol, ahorra aún más.


    Qu compro65 l.jpg
    ¿Qué compro?http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm

    Compra enseres que tengan un bajo uso de energía.

    ¡Compara!

    Puedesahorrar de $10- 60 mensuales por cada uno!!


    Reforestaci n l.jpg
    Reforestaciónhttp://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm

    • Siembra árboles

      • Bajan la temperatura del

        hogar hasta 10 grados F!,

      • ¡Aumentar valor de propiedad!

      • Reducen emisiones de CO2

        *El Fideicomiso te regala 200 árboles gratis!


    Computadoras l.jpg
    Computadoras http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm

    • Apágala si no la vas a usar en 1.5 horas o más.

    • NO dejes el “adapter” conectado!!!


    Slide68 l.jpg

    • Apagahttp://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm también la impresora y bocinas si no las estás usando.

    • Desconéctalas por las noches.


    Cargadores l.jpg
    Cargadoreshttp://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm

    • ¡No dejes el cargador del celular conectado si no lo estás usando!

    • Usa de 70-95% de la energía.


    Qu compro70 l.jpg
    ¿Qué compro?http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm

    Un calentador solar

    • Ahorra $40-$100 mensual

    • Dura 30+ años!


    Aires l.jpg
    ¿Aires?http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm

    • Usa abanicos en vez de aires acondicionados en noches frescas.

      • Puedes ahorrar $70-$100 mensualmente!


    Carros h bridos l.jpg
    Carros Híbridoshttp://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm

    Ahorras $6,000 en 5 años y $12,000 en 10 años!

    Toma en cuenta gastos inicial y gastos debido a eficiencia de combustible del auto de gasolina versus auto híbrido.


    Qu compro73 l.jpg
    ¿Qué compro?http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm

    • Una piscina de fibra de vidrio (fiberglass) gasta 1/3 de la energía que una piscina de concreto

    • Además la de fibra tiene menos filtraciones de agua.

    Escoge piscina de fibra de vidrio


    Viajes en avi n l.jpg
    Viajes en Aviónhttp://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm


    Other things to do save with no initial cost l.jpg
    Other Things to Do– http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stmSave $ with NO initial cost

    • Turn off water faucet,

      • shower not baths, flow

      • change shower head

    • Clean air-conditioning filters

    • Tune-up car, keep balanced, Accelerate minimum only

      *MPG


    Slide76 l.jpg

    • Turn down Water heater, and air conditionerhttp://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm

      • Use sheets instead of blankets

    • Use cold water for washing cloths!

      • Hang clothes if possible

    • Use dishwasher only when full

      • Wash by hand if possible


    Slide77 l.jpg

    • Eating habits:http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm

      • Eat less meat (less methane);

      • Eat local products

    • Car pooling, walking or biking

    • Avoid sanitary dishes/napkins

      • Both styrofoam or paper


    Slide78 l.jpg

    • Buy products with least packaginghttp://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm

      • Large family packs

      • Gift bags instead of wrapping

      • Water bottles! 

    *Packaging and clean water production needs a lot of energy and releases tons of CO2 in the atmosphere annually.


    Slide79 l.jpg

    • Be a wise consumerhttp://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm

      • Buy less

      • Give away things you not longer use.

    Everex.com


    Slide80 l.jpg

    • Recycle! http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm

      • (plastic, paper, cardboard, cans, glass)

    • Email your senators, government officials:

      • Sign petition at www.undoit.org

      • Sign petition at climatecrisis.org


    To do l.jpg
    To Do…http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm

    Transportation accounts for 67% of oil used!

    • Use public transportation

    • Eat organic products (better health, less Br)

    • Consider wind or solar power

    • Use silicone or dark baking pans: Bake T-25oF

    • Use reusable plastic or cloth coffee filter

    Green means it’s also good for your HEALTH.


    Slide82 l.jpg

    Small changes, make a big difference:http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm


    Let s use its resources efficiently so that we can all benefit from it l.jpg

    We are ONE human race; http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm we only have ONE planet.

    Let’s use its resources efficiently so that we can all benefit from it.


    Book references l.jpg
    Book References:http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm

    • The End of Poverty by Jeffrey Sachs

    • Weather Makers by Tim Flannery

    • An Inconvenient Truth by Al Gore

    • The World is Flat by Thomas Friedman

    • Global Warming by Chris Spence

    • Pathologies of Power, Paul Farmer

    • Mini Atlas of Global Development, The World Bank

    • Economics of Climate Change, Sir Nick Stern


    Web references l.jpg
    Web References…http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/climate.stm

    • www.nasa.gov

    • www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/globalwarming

    • www.povertymap.net

    • www.unmillenniumproject.org

    • www.st-edmunds.cam.ac.uk

    • www.noaa.gov

    • www.borgenproject.org

    • www.unicef.org

    • www.energyhog.org FUN!! (PC games)


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