Effects of early stimulation and deprivation
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Effects of Early Stimulation and Deprivation. The general philosophical trend has been that stimulation is always “good” and deprivation is always “bad.”. Questions. Can overstimulation occur? Is deprivation ever in the child’s best interest?

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The general philosophical

trend has been that

stimulation is always “good” and deprivation is

always “bad.”


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Questions

  • Can overstimulation occur?

  • Is deprivation ever in the child’s best interest?

  • When are the best times for stimulation or the worst times for deprivation?

  • Is stimulation worthwhile for the acquisition of all human behaviors?

  • Are there some behaviors that cannot be facilitated by early exposure to stimulating experiences?


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Objectives

• Describe some effects of early stimulation.

• Describe some programs to enhance early motor development.

• Describe McGraw’s famous twin study involving early stimulation and deprivation.

• Describe some effects of early deprivation.

• Explain the major concepts concerning stimulation and deprivation.


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Effects of Early Stimulation

  • “Bringing up Superbaby” (Langway et al., 1983)

    • Predicted increased enrollment in children’s educational programs.

  • Currently

    • Parents begin to “teach” their children at birth.

    • Parents are involving children in early educational programs more than ever before.

  • Why?

    • Parents are older, more educated, and wealthier than earlier generations.

    • Parents believe early educational stimulation is valuable.

    • Parents want all advantages for their child.

    • Parents believe that kindergarten is “too late”.


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The Smart Baby . Com Products

Babies love the sounds of other babies and your baby will be  intrigued. Audio CD of a happy baby cooing  with highs and lows like a symphony. The program promotes vocal expression in a unique way. Included tracks in volume I are Sing with Me, Happy Time, Cutie Pie and more. See how your baby will want to interact with  the sounds of another infant  just like him or her. Along with the Smart Sounds CD you will receive a FREE 8x10 color photo of a happy smiling baby. The two items should  be used in conjunction for maximum benefit. Ages Birth to 9 months.

Repeated exposure to the characteristic sounds of a foreign language will create dedicated neurons in the auditory cortex of your baby's brain resulting in greater brain capacity. Baby Einstein includes nursery rhymes spoken by mothers in their native languages of English, Spanish, Japanese, Hebrew, German, Russian and French. For ages birth to 18 months.

Birth to 18 months.


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Effects of Early Stimulation

  • Burton White (1975): First Three Years of Life

    • Parents are teachers, not just creators of babies.

  • Glen Doman (2000, 2005, 2006)

    • Fine motor control of eye influences reading and math success.

    • Use flashcards during first few days of life to stimulate eye control.

  • Benjamin Spock

    • Concern that children are “overintelliectualized”.

    • Early emphasis on achievement may actually hamper emotional, physical, or creative aspects of development.


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The Boston Globe – 2007 – Glen Doman

http://www.boston.com/news/globe/magazine/articles/2007/10/28/baby_video/


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Programs to Enhance Early Motor Development

  • Millions of programs available to fill consumer demands.

    • Offered by qualified and unqualified persons.

  • Two main types of programs:

    • No programming

    • Programming


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Programs to Enhance Early Motor Development

  • No programming

    • No systematic practice of future motor skills.

    • Instruction withheld until the infant learns body control.

    • Do not place a child in a position they cannot attain alone.

    • Nonrestrictive clothing advocated.

    • Hard-soled shoes are discouraged.

    • Allows for acquisition of early movements.



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Programs to Enhance Early Motor Development

  • Programming

    • Parent takes an active role in moving the baby or limbs of the infant during activity.

    • Infant walkers, bouncers, etc., are encouraged.

    • Specialized equipment is available.

    • Manual manipulation benefits infant posture, locomotion,fitness and flexibility.


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Infant Walkers

  • Designed to support babies who cannot yet walk independently.

  • There are many questions about safetyand efficacy of the device to promote early walking.


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Infant Walkers

  • Concerns for Injury

    • Slipping through walkers.

    • Tumbling over walkers.

    • Falling down stairs in walkers.

  • Cost of Walkers

    • 12 – 40% of users experience injuries.

    • $9 million / year on walker related injuries in US.

    • 34 walker related deaths in US between 1973-1998.

  • Concerns for Development

    • May deprive infants from seeing moving limbs.

    • May delay independent walking.

    • May impede crawling.


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1989

Canadian Juvenile Products Association and Health Canada established a voluntary industry standard regarding infant walkers.

Resulted in a rapid phase out of baby walkers from the marketplace.

1997

Canadian Juvenile Products Association ceased to exist.

Most major retailers refrained from re-introducing walkers into Canada.

Baby walkers still available to Canadians through second-hand sales, street vendors, electronic commerce, etc.

2003

Health Canada concluded that the inherent nature of baby walkers poses significant and unnecessary risks to infants.

Health Canada sought the views of Canadians on a proposal to legally ban the sale, advertisement and importation of baby walkers into Canada.

2007

Tony Clement, Minister of Health, released report of the Board of Review Inquiring into the Nature and Characteristics of Baby Walkers.

Clement accepted recommendation to prohibit advertising, sale and importation of baby walkers.

Infant Walkers – In Canada



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Programs to Enhance Early Motor Development

  • Little research is available to substantiate either “no-programming” or “programming”.

  • American Academy of Pediatrics recommends:

    • Structured programs not be “promoted as being therapeutically beneficial for the development of healthy infants”

    • “Parents are encouraged to provide a safe, nurturing, and minimally structured play environment for their infant”


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Swim Programs

  • American Academy of Pediatrics

    • Swim programs designed to teach infants to swim (0-1 year) ineffective.

    • Infant and toddler aquatic programs DO NOT decrease the risk of drowning.

    • Children not ready for formal swim lessons until 4th birthday.


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Swim Programs

  • Skills better achieved once child has attained the motor development of 5 year old.

  • Earlier lessons donot lead to more rapid mastery of skill.

  • Drownproofing programs may give parents a false sense of security.

  • Early programs are beneficial for pleasure and comfort in the water.


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Swim Programs – Health Concerns

  • Hyponatremia

    • Water intoxication

    • Individual ingests too much water

      • Body’s electrolytes reduced

      • Kidneys cannot filter excess fluid

      • Sodium levels reduced

    • Symptoms: restlessness, disorientation, weakness, death


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Swim Programs – Health Concerns

  • How could an infant develop hyponatremia during a swim program?


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Swim Programs – Health Concerns

  • Giardia

    • Parasite which develops in intestinal track.

    • Causes diarrhea.

    • Easily transmitted to others in a pool.

  • Safety in the Pool

    • Shower after class (wash off Giardia).

    • Wear tight legged diapers/pants.

    • Children who are ill or with diarrhea should not participate in swim lessons.


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Baby pools may increase asthma dangerBy David Rennie Jan 19, 2006 Telegraph UK

Taking baby swimming classes before the age of two may double the risk of a child developing asthma and chronic lung problems, a European expert on toxic substances claimed yesterday. Alfred Bernard, the professor of toxicology at Belgium's leading medical school, the Catholic University of Louvain, told the Belgian senate that he had measured levels of the irritant trichloramine 50 per cent higher in the air above indoor paddling pools than in adult pools. He said he had found damage to specific deep lung cells among former baby swimmers comparable with that caused by smoking among adults. His recent study involved 341 schoolchildren of whom 41 had been taken to baby swimming classes 10 years before when they were under two. Twenty-three per cent of the baby swimmers developed asthma compared with 11 per cent of the whole group.

British specialists urged caution. Prof Martyn Partridge, Asthma UK's chief medical adviser, said: "Swimming is an excellent form of exercise for children with asthma. The warm humid air in the swimming pool is less likely to trigger symptoms of asthma. "We do recognise however that the chemicals present in heavily chlorinated pools may be important in making the airways more irritable and further research is needed to understand this association".Prof Malcolm Green, a founder of the British Lung Foundation, said asthma was on the increase across the world, including in societies where young children did not use indoor pools. "These results need to be reviewed with caution and subjected to rigorous prospective studies," he said.

Prof Bernard believes that pools used by babies and toddlers should be thoroughly ventilated to clear dangerous gases. Given the expense of replacing indoor pool air six times an hour - as recommended in some American studies - it might be simplest to switch to other forms of disinfection, such as ozone treatment or copper-silver systems, he said.

When he published a study two years ago the Committee of the Medical Effects of Air Pollutants at the Department of Health investigated. Its report concluded that "swimming provided an important form of exercise and unless significantly affected, children suffering from asthma should not avoid this activity. Minor effects on airway function were likely to respond to the use of the subject's reliever inhaler".


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Gymboree

  • Philosophy:

    • Preschool years may be the most critical part of education but parents have least amount of expert help.

    • Preschoolers need to be provided with certain types of play activities that are essential in development but not available at home, playground, or nursery.

    • Safe and noncompetitive.


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Gymboree

  • Program includes 7 levels designed to enhance motor skills, social skills, and self-esteem.

  • Physical fitness

  • Arts

  • International play

  • Music and dance

  • Yoga


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Gymboree

  • Program claims improvement in

    • Balance

    • Fundamental movements (run, jump, throw, catch)

    • Switching modes of locomotion

    • Assuming variety of body positions

    • Changing directions and speeds

    • Socializing

    • Expressing imagination

  • Parent surveys

    • Parents have undistracted quality time with children.

    • Parents have chance to meet other parents.

    • Children are less passive and dependent.

    • Children develop coordination and social skills.

  • Consumers should be cautious.


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Suzuki Method of Violin Playing

  • Beginning at birth

    • Infant listens to violin music.

    • Infant watches musicians play violin.

    • Tonal quality of music essential.

  • Beginning at 2 – 2 ½ years

    • Child engages in violin lessons.

    • Child must be motivated.

    • Properly sized violin must be used.

  • Residual effects of programming unknown

    • Some outstanding violinists

    • Many dropouts


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Head Start Programs

  • Philosophy

    • To give financially disadvantaged children a “head start” in education.

  • Objective

    • To “enhance the social competence of children from lower income families”.

    • i.e., To give children the ability to deal with their present environment in school and in life.

  • Method

    • A preschool program that boosts intellectual, social, and emotional behavior will enhance academic success.


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Head Start Programs

  • Longitudinal Study (Bergley & Carey, 1983)

    • 2100 Head Start Children

    • 10 times more likely to complete high school compared to their socioeconomic counterparts

  • D.C. Study (Marcon, 1996)

    • Preschool programs (like Head Start) positively affect children’s long and short term performance.


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Head Start Programs

Head Start Family and Child Experience Survey (FACES; Zill et al., 1999, 2001)

  • Methods

    • 3200 children in 40 Head Start programs

    • Longitudinal: entry, year 1, year 2, end of kindergarten

    • Examined cognitive, social, emotional, and physical development


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Head Start Programs

Head Start Family and Child Experience Survey (FACES; Zill et al., 1999,2001)

  • Some Results

    • Social Skills

      • “Very often” “used their free time in acceptable ways,” “follow the teacher’s directions,” and “help in putting things away”.

    • Cognitive Skills

      • The children COULD NOT identify or write the letters of the alphabet.

      • The children could not copy complex geometric figures.


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Head Start Programs

Head Start Family and Child Experience Survey (FACES; Zill et al., 1999, 2001)

  • Conclusions

    • Disadvantaged children involved in Head Start programs narrowed the academic gap in vocabulary, writing, and social skills.

    • Those of greatest disadvantage showed the greatest gains.

    • Head Start children were ready for school on the basis of how much they had learned by the end of kindergarten.

    • Head Start children could benefit from more activities aimed at improving early literacy.



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What is Kindermusik?

Kindermusik is a music and movement program. Each week in class you’ll play, listen, and dance to music that will impact you and your child in profound ways. That’s because every song, story, and two-step has a carefully chosen purpose in this creative curriculum—one that’s designed to stimulate and strengthen the vital neural wiring taking place in your child’s mind, right now. A Kindermusik educator will guide you every step of the way so you know how each activity contributes to your child’s overall growth and development.The latest research with proven methods—that’s Kindermusik, too. Our child-centered curricula incorporate ongoing, in-classroom studies with our own, 30-years’ experience in music and child development. Plus, we’ve combined the best music learning methods found in Orff, Kodaly, and Suzuki.“Take-home” books, instruments and CDs from class let you take learning with you wherever you go. All while strengthening the emotional bond between you and your child. So whether it’s twirling under a sea of scarves, experimenting with age-appropriate instruments, singing about a scampering squirrel, creating a musical ensemble, or snuggling in your lap during story time, Kindermusik speaks your child’s language and offers her (and you!) the best music and movement class available.


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Kindermusik8 months


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