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DIFFERENT ROADS: Personal Mobility in the 21st Century. by Robert Q. Riley. Ford hybrid-electric concept car. Total Oil Recovered Since 1859 & Total Remaining as of 1990. Billion Barrels. Total Recovered. Total Remaining. Canada. Middle East. United States. Western Europe.

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different roads personal mobility in the 21st century

DIFFERENT ROADS:Personal Mobility in the 21st Century

by

Robert Q. Riley

Ford hybrid-electric concept car

growing demand drives wealth to oil rich regions

Total Oil Recovered Since 1859

& Total Remaining as of 1990

Billion

Barrels

Total

Recovered

Total

Remaining

Canada

Middle East

United States

Western Europe

Other Eastern Hemisphere

Eastern Europe, Former

U.S.S.R., China

Mexico, Central & South America

GROWING DEMAND DRIVES WEALTH TO OIL-RICH REGIONS

WORLD CAR POPULATION

Developing World 300% Increase 1995 to 2020

Million

greenhouse emissions global warming

1820

1860

1900

1940

1980

2020

GREENHOUSE EMISSIONS& GLOBAL WARMING

Global Carbon Emissions

1820 to 2020

Source of U.S. CO2 Emissions

1997

Projected

History

options for sustainable mobility

Product Design Affects

Attitudes & Lifestyles

OPTIONS FOR SUSTAINABLEMOBILITY

TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS

  • Battery Electric Cars
  • Hybrid Power Systems
  • Fuel Cell Vehicles

DESIGN SOLUTIONS

  • New Vehicle Types

SYSTEMS SOLUTIONS

  • Station Cars
  • Personal Rapid Transit (PRT)

XR-3 Tilting Three Wheel Vehicle Concept

Robert Q. Riley Enterprises

battery electric vehicles
BATTERY-ELECTRIC VEHICLES
  • NiHM Battery (Ovonic & SAFT)
  • Lithium-Ion Battery (SAFT)
  • Lithium-Polymer Battery(3M & Hydro-Quebec)

Ovonic NiMH Battery Pack

NiMH = 150 mile range on a 1,000 pound battery pack

Lithium-Polymer = 300 mile range on a 450 pound battery pack

lithium battery couple
LITHIUM BATTERY COUPLE
  • 300-Mile Range on 450-lb Battery Pack
  • Solid State Design
  • No Liquid Electrolyte
  • Packaged in a Variety of Shapes

FEATURES OF LPB

Developed by 3M & Hydro Quebec

hybrid electric vehicles
HYBRID-ELECTRIC VEHICLES
  • Combustion Hybrids

Charge-Depleting

Charge-Sustaining

  • Fuel Cell Vehicles

Pure Hydrogen

Reformed Hydrogen

Direct Methanol

Early Quincy-Lynn charge-depleting hybrid (circa 1980)

Ford Hybrid Concept Car

production hybrids

PRODUCTION HYBRIDS

Honda Insight with Integrated Motor Assist

61 mpg City

71 mpg Highway

1.0-Liter Gasoline Engine 10kw Electric Motor

Regenerative Braking

NiMH Batteries (144v)

Honda Insight, courtesy American Honda

fuel cell vehicles reacts oxygen from air with on board hydrogen

FUEL CELL VEHICLESReacts Oxygen From Air With On-Board Hydrogen

Runs on Hydrogen

By-Product is Water

Up to Twice as Efficient as ICE

Hydrogen Can Come From a Variety of Carrier Fuels

Ford Focus FC5 Fuel Cell Concept Car

slide10

EFFICIENCY IN AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATION

DIRECT

METHANOL

FUEL CELL

DIESEL

CYCLE

OTTO

CYCLE

DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELL

HYDROGEN PEM FUEL CELL STACK

EXPECTED

DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELLS ARE LESS COMPLEX AND MAY BE MORE EFFICIENT THAN PURE HYDROGEN PEM CELLS

lifestyle vehicles design alone can affect energy intensity

LIFESTYLE VEHICLES“Design” Alone Can Affect Energy Intensity

High Energy Intensity

Lower Energy Intensity

Lowest Energy Intensity

Chrysler’s Jeepster Concept Vehicle

VW Beetle

Smart Car

slide12

PERSONAL URBAN COMMUTERThree-Wheel Platform Provides Product Differentiation

SPECIFICATIONS FOR

ICE-POWERED CAR

100 mpg City

70 mph

800 lb Curb Weight

Side-by-Side Seating

SIGNIFICANTLY SMALLER CARS

Lower Energy Intensity

 Fewer Harmful Emissions

 Improved Traffic Flow

 Increases Parking Capacity

 Less Hazardous to Pedestrians

TRIMUTER

Quincy-Lynn Enterprises, 1979

outside the box ideas in vehicle design

OUTSIDE-THE-BOX IDEAS IN VEHICLE DESIGN

TILTING THREE-WHEELERS

Vandenbrink Carver

Zark 1500 design study by Paul Morrow

Mercedes F300 Life Jet

project 32 slalom tilting three wheeler
PROJECT 32 SLALOMTilting Three-Wheeler

Features

1000-lb curb weight

Leans into curves for greater cornering power

Little or no side force on occupants

Seats two side-by-side

Electric or ICE Power

Courtesy Transit Innovations - www.p32fun.com

human powered vehicles
HUMAN POWERED VEHICLES

Human Powered Vehicles Are Lifestyle Vehicles

Energy-Efficient Personal Transportation Can Be Lifestyle Driven as Well as Technology Driven

Ground Hugger XR2 Recumbent Bicycle - www. rqriley.com

Courtesy Bicycle Transportation Systems, Inc.

www.biketrans.com

station cars a subsystem of mass transit systems
STATION CARSASubsystem of Mass Transit Systems

Honda ICVS City Pal

Station Car

FEATURES

  • Cars charged and maintained by fleet operator.
  • Users billed monthly.
  • Available at colleges, apartment & office complexes, shopping centers & transit stations.
  • Individual vehicles are better utilized.
  • Transit systems becomes more usable.

Bay Area Rapid Transit District

Prototype Station Car

Toyota E-Com

National Station Car Association - www.stncar.com

personal mobility as a commodity
PERSONAL MOBILITY AS A COMMODITY

PERSONAL RAPID TRANSIT (PRT)

Keeps Private cars Out of Cities

Downtown Land Better Utilized

Pedestrians Not Mixed With Motorized Traffic

No Local Emissions

Traffic Noise Eliminated

Superior Energy Efficiency

SkyTran PRT System - www.skytran.net

personal mobility in the 21st century
PERSONAL MOBILITY IN THE 21ST CENTURY

GM’s Ultralite

1400-lb Curb Weight

81 mpg Highway

0-60 mph in 7.8 sec

Seats Four

  • Advanced Power Systems
  • New Materials for Lower Mass
  • New Ideas in Vehicle Design, Packaging, and Personality
  • Subsystems for Transit Systems
  • Personal Mobility Ultimately Becomes a Commodity

GM’s Ultralite Carbon Fiber Car

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