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THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. CHAPTER 10 MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY. FUNCTION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. Have you ever wondered what causes your body to do the things it does? Control of the body’s billions of cells is accomplished by the nervous system the endocrine system

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THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

CHAPTER 10

MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY


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FUNCTION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

Have you ever wondered what causes your body to do the things it does?

  • Control of the body’s billions of cells is accomplished by

    • the nervous system

    • the endocrine system

  • Parts of the nervous system communicate information to body structures


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ORGANS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

  • BRAIN

  • SPINAL CORD

  • NERVES OF THE BODY

    Let’s examine each of these in detail


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NERVES

  • Nerves are a combination of cells

  • Nerves are a group of impulse carrying fibers that connect the brain and spinal cord with other parts of the body

  • Other terms associated with nerves are:

    A Ganglion

    A Plexus

    Receptors


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NEURONS

What is a neuron?

  • Neurons are the basic cells of the nervous system

  • Each neuron consists of 3 parts

    CELL BODY

    DENDRITES

    AXON


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Jugular vein

DENDRITES

Branch like projections off the cell body

Receive impulses and conduct the impulses to the cell body

DENDRITES/AXONS


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AXONS

Axons look like elongated projections

Axons transmit impulses away from the cell body

Groups of wrapped axons are fascicles

DENDRITES/AXONS

  • DENDRITES

  • Branch like projections off the cell body

  • Receive impulses and conduct the impulses to the cell body


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NEURONS

There are 3 types of neurons according to the direction in which they transmit impulses

  • SENSORY NEURONS

  • MOTOR NEURONS

  • INTERNEURONS


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NEUROTRANSMITTERS

What are neurotransmitters?

  • Chemicals by which neurons communicate.

  • This chemical substance helps impulses jump across the synapse so the impulse can continue along its pathway or reflex arc


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NEUROGLIA

  • Neuroglia are supportive and connective cells

  • They do not transmit impulses

  • They hold the functioning neurons together


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DIVISIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

The nervous system is divided into 3 parts:

  • Central Nervous System

  • Peripheral Nervous System

  • Autonomic Nervous System

    Let’s examine each of these systems


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CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

The Central Nervous System consists of:

  • Brain

  • Spinal Cord


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THE BRAIN

DIVISIONS OF THE BRAIN

  • Brain Stem

    Medulla Oblongata

    Pons

    Midbrain

  • Cerebellum

  • Diencephalon

  • Cerebrum


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THE BRAIN STEM

  • Medulla oblongata is located at the lowest part of the brain and consists of gray and white matter

  • Pons consists of gray and white matter and is situated at the base of the brain where the nerve cells cross from one side of the brain to control the opposite side of the body

  • Midbrain consists of gray and white matter


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THE BRAIN AND ITS PARTS

  • Cerebellum the 2nd largest part of the brain

  • Cerebrum the largest and uppermost part of the brain. It’s divided into 4 lobes


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DIENCEPHALON

  • The diencephalon is a small part of the brain and consists of:

  • Hypothalamus

  • Thalamus


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THE SPINAL CORD

  • The main function of the spinal cord is to carry nerve impulses that affect the limbs and lower parts of the body

  • Both the brain and spinal cord are protected by the meninges and cerebrospinal fluid


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MENINGES & FLUID

  • The meninges consists of 3 layers of tissue

    The Dura Mater

    The Arachnoid Membrane

    The Pia Mater

  • Cerebrospinal Fluid is a clear, colorless fluid that flows throughout the brain and around the spinal cord and helps to cushion these organs


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PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

  • Consists of:

    Crainal Nerves

    Spinal Nerves

  • There are 12 pairs of crainal nerves

  • There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves and they are names after the artery they accompany or the body part they innervate


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AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

  • The autonomic nervous system consists of motor neurons. There are 2 divisions of the autonomic nervous system

  • Sympathetic Nervous System

  • Parasympathetic Nervous System


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