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bivalvia cephalopoda
Bivalvia & Cephalopoda

Welcometo the home of Bivalvia and Cephalopoda. My name is Tim Dillavou and these pages are devoted to giving some background information on bivalves and cephalopods. They will also give some more detailed information on a few species I encountered during a marine ecology class at University of Washington-Tacoma during the spring of 2007.

Webpage created by Timothy Dillavou on 05-23-2007

bivalvia
Bivalvia

Kingdom: animalia

Phylum: mollusca

Class: Bivalvia

Characteristics:

  • Bivalve refers to having a shell with two halves or valves.
  • All bivalves have rigid shells to provide support for their soft bodies. 
  • Bivalvia is the only molluscan class characterized by the absence of a radula.
  • Live:
  • Marine or freshwater
  • In or on top of sediment (epifaunal or infaunal)
  • Life span varies
  • Size 2mm to over 4 feet (giant clam of the south pacific)

Feeding/Respiration:

  • Most are filter feeders defined by a gill structure
  • Some are scavengers or predators
  • consume phytoplankton and other tiny organic matter that flows through their gills. 
  • gills function both in respiration and in straining out food particles.
  • mussels can filter 10-15 gallons of water per day.

Locomotion:

  • muscular "foot" used for burrowing, or swimming (razor clams)
  • some use foot (byssal threads) for attaching to attaching to substrate (blue mussels)

Reproduction:

  • externally when eggs and sperm are released into water
  • female may spawn millions of eggs in her lifetime. 

Senses:

  • In many bivalves, the mantle margin has a sensory function and often possesses rows of parallel tentacles with tactile and chemosensory cells. In some species, the siphon tips may also possess such tentacles.

Tresus nuttalli

(pacific gaper)

Crassostrea gigas

(Japanese oyster)

chlamys rubida pacific pink scallop
Chlamys rubida(Pacific pink scallop)

Description: 

  • prominent ribs on each valve
  • grows to about 6 -7 cm long.
  • swim when threatened
  • many eyes around the outside, which perceive light and direction. 
  • One side of shell is covered with a symbiotic sponge. 

Geographical Range:

  • Alaska to San Diego, CA; uncommon S of Puget Sound.

Depth Range:

  • low intertidal to 300 m; mainly subtidal

Habitat:

  • rocky or gravel/mud bottoms.

Life span:

  • up to 6 years. 

Reproduction:

  • externally when eggs and sperm are released into water

Humans uses:

  • harvested by recreational & commercial fishermen because highly desirable seafood.

Photos by Hannah Julich, May 2007

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mytilus californianus california sea mussel
Mytilus californianus(California sea mussel)

Description:

  • color: bluish/ black, concentric growth lines
  • shell to about 8 inches long

Geographical range:

  • Alaska to southern Baja California

Depth Range:

  • mainly in intertidal zone on outer coast

Habitat:

  • Abundant, on surf-exposed rocks and pier pilings in colonies for protection

Feeding:

  • Filter feeder, prefer to eat fine organic material and plankton

Life span:

  • 10-100 years

Reproduction:

  • Male releases sperm into water and enters female when water is siphoned over gills

Photo by Dave Cowles, Little Corona del Mar, CA March 2005

Photos by Bonnie Becker 2007

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cephalopoda
Cephalopoda

Kingdom: animalia

Phylum: mollusca

Class: cephalopoda

Two subclasses:

  • Coleoidea: squid, cuttlefish, and octopus
  • Nautiloidea: nautiluses

Characteristics:

  • A funnel derived from the molluscan foot, circumoral arms that are probably derived from the molluscan head, chitinous beaks

Habitat:

  • all marine, In all seas at all depths, Octopuses are solitary living in cracks and crevices but squid have been known to swim in large groups

Life span:

  • 1-3 years (except for nautilus up to 15 yrs)

Feeding:

  • carnivores: crustaceans, fish, gastropod molluscs

Respiration:

  • gills

Locomotion:

  • walk with use of tentacles (octopus), lateral fins to swim (cuttlefish), jet propulsion (squids almost use exclusively)

Shell/Skeleton:

  • Octopus- absent, squid- pen, cuttlefish- cuttlebone, nautilus- external

Reproduction:

  • Coleoidea - lay hundreds to half a million eggs, Octopus-male typically dies after mating and female dies after guarding eggs
  • Nautiloidea- lays a few eggs each year

Senses:

  • eyes similar to humans (except for nautilus), touch, storage of chemical info for taste and texture

Special notes:

  • change color, texture, and shape, very intelligent

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enteroctopus doflieni giant pacific octopus
Enteroctopusdoflieni(giant Pacific Octopus)

Description:

  • largest species in the world, up to 400 lbs and 25 feet arm span

Geographical range:

  • Pacific ocean
  • common in Puget Sound

Depth Range:

  • intertidal to 750 m

Habitat:

  • rocky crevices

Feeding:

  • crustaceans, mollusks, fish

Life span:

  • 3-5 years

Reproduction:

  • female lays between 20,000 to 100,000 eggs and tends the eggs until hatched and then dies

Human uses:

  • food, display in aquariums, and for use as bait in other fisheries

Picture by Bonnie Becker, 2007

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Picture by Greg Gilbert The Seattle Times, 2003

references
References
  • The University of Arizona College of Agriculture and Life Sciences website accessed on 03-31-2007

http://tolweb.org/tree/phylogeny.html

  • State of Washington website accessed on 04-02-2007

http://depts.washington.edu/natmap/mollusks/3bivafile.html

  • Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences website accessed on 04-03-2007

http://www.thecephalopodpage.org/

  • Smithsonian National Zoological Park website accessed on 04-03-2007

http://nationalzoo.si.edu/Animals/Invertebrates/Facts/cephalopods/

  • State University of New York College at Cortland website accessed on 03-31-2007 http://www.cortland.edu/
  • University of Michigan Museum of Zoology website accessed on 04-04-2006 http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Bivalvia.html
  • University of Hawaii at Manoa website accessed on 04-04-2007

www.soest.hawaii.edu

  • American Society of Limnology and Oceanography website accessed on 04-04-2007

www.aslo.org

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