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Birth & Journal Article #1. Lecture 3 Chapter 4 and Cooper & Aslin (1990) Psych 1643. Extra Credit Quiz #1. 1) The researchers found that __________speech had a higher average frequency and a wider frequency range than ________ speech.

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Birth & Journal Article #1

Lecture 3

Chapter 4 and Cooper & Aslin (1990)

Psych 1643


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Extra Credit Quiz #1

1) The researchers found that __________speech had a higher average frequency and a wider frequency range than ________ speech.

2) In this study, infants were able to control how long they listened to samples of speech by looking at __________________________________.


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Pregnant Thoughts

“Somewhere between conception and becoming as big as a house, you come to a startling realization that becomes a recurring, horrific thought. I have to get this out of me, and there is no pretty way to do it.”

“Imagine - a seven pound kidney stone…”

“I think the reason that pregnancy lasts nine months is that it takes that length of torture before childbirth starts to sound like a reasonable option.”


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Signs of Impending Birth

  • Prelabor

  • The Lightening - the baby’s head drops low in the uterus

  • The bloody show - a mucous plug that was in the cervix is released

  • The Breaking of the Waters - discharge of amniotic fluid


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Labor

  • Onset of Labor (latent labor):

  • 10 - 14 hours for first birth

  • Active Labor:

  • 2 - 3 1/2 hours for first birth

  • Transition:

  • 5 to 10 minutes for first birth

  • Some sense of disorientation, heightened arousal, or loss of control


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Birth

  • 10-50 minutes for first birth

  • Begins when the cervix is fully dilated

  • The baby’s head presses down on the bottom of the birth canal

  • The mother experiences a strong, reflexive urge to push to expel the baby

  • The baby is born


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Afterbirth

  • Within 20 minutes of delivery (generally painless)

  • Mother and infant have initial contact

  • Placenta and umbilical cord is expelled

  • Rapid alteration of the hormone system to stimulate lactation and shrink the uterus

  • Mother and infant engage in early exploration; initial attempts at nursing


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Cultural Differences

  • Birth Culture - the beliefs, values, and guidelines for behavior regarding pregnancy and childbirth

  • Mead and Newton (1967) - described societal attitudes along two dimensions:

    • Solicitude -

    • Shame -

    • Adequacy -

    • Vulnerability -


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Mead & Newton’s Dimensions

  • What evidence have you observed of solicitude toward pregnant women?

  • What evidence have you observed of shame regarding pregnant women?

  • What evidence have you observed of adequacy toward pregnant women?

  • What evidence have you observed of vulnerability toward pregnant women?



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How much of a contribution?

  • Heritability estimates - measure complex traits

    • kinship studies - compare characteristics of family members

    • They take the form of correlation scores

  • Concordance rates - measure the percentage of instances in which both twins show a trait that is present in the other.

    • These are generally used to study traits that can be present or absent


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Gene - Environment Contributions

  • The idea of the reaction range:

    • a person’s unique, genetically determined response to a range of environmental conditions.

  • The idea of canalization:

    • for some traits, there is a genetic restriction - no matter what the environment, this trait will develop similarly


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Genetic-Environmental Correlation

  • Passive correlation:

    • parents create an environment compatible with their own genes

  • Evocative correlation:

    • child behaves in ways consistent with his/her heredity

    • this provokes responses from others that strengthen the child’s original response

  • Active correlation:

    • child selects an environment that complements his/her genetic tendencies


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Journal Review - Some Basics

Cooper, R. P. & Aslin, R. N. (1990). Preference for Infant-directed Speech in the First Month after Birth. Child Development,61, 1584-1595.

Two different types of hypothesis in every experiment. You should be able to identify and name both of these in the articles you read.

  • H0 = the null hypothesis - the independent variable (or variables) has no effect.

  • H1 = the alternative hypothesis - the independent variable (or variables) has an effect.


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Group One

  • What are the hypotheses for this experiment?

    • There should be three:

      • H0 =

      • H1a =

      • H1b =


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Group One - Cont.

  • Do these hypotheses lean toward a nature or nurture explanation?

  • What are some of the reasons the authors came up with these hypotheses? (From previous research)


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Group Two

  • What are the independent and dependent variables? What are the levels of each of the independent variables?

    • IV’s - 3

      • IV -

      • IV -

      • IV -

    • DV’s - 1

      • DV -


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Group Two - Cont.

  • Make a drawing of the experimental equipment.

  • How were the measurements (of the dependent variables) made?


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Group Two Cont.

  • What methods were used to avoid confounding variables or observer bias?

  • What type of study was this - cross-sectional / longitudinal / sequential (circle all that apply)



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Group Three

Table 1 -

  • Describe the differences in ID and AD along the following dimensions:

    • Average Frequency (Pitch)

    • Frequency (Pitch) Range

    • Duration

    • Pause Length


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Group Three - Cont.

Figure 1 -

  • speak in ID and AD - use the sentences listed here, and try to make the rise and fall of your voice match the ones in the graph

    Figure 2 -

  • What does this graph indicate?

    Figure 3 -

  • What does this graph indicate?


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Group Four:

  • What were the major findings? (Try for at least three!)

  • What are some possible follow-ups to this study? (Don’t be limited to the ones listed!)


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